Related provisions for IFPRU 4.6.30

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To access the FCA Handbook Archive choose a date between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004 (From field only).

IFPRU 4.7.1GRP
The FCA expects a firm to ensure that no LGD estimate is less than zero.
IFPRU 4.7.2GRP
The FCA does not expect a firm to be using zero LGD estimates in cases other than where it had cash collateral supporting the exposures.
IFPRU 4.7.3GRP
The FCA expects a firm to justify any low LGD estimates using analysis on volatility of sources of recovery, notably on collateral, and cures (see IFPRU 4.7.5 G). This includes:(1) recognising that the impact of collateral volatility on low LGDs is asymmetric, as surpluses over amounts owed need to be returned to borrowers and that this effect may be more pronounced when estimating downturn, rather than normal period LGDs; and(2) recognising the costs and discount rate associated
IFPRU 4.7.4GRP
To ensure that the impact of collateral volatility is taken into account, the FCA expects a firm's LGD framework to include non-zero LGD floors which are not solely related to administration costs (see article 179(1)(f) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.5GRP
Where a firm wishes to include cures in its LGD estimates, the FCA expects it to do this on a cautious basis, with reference to both its current experience and how this is expected to change in downturn conditions. In particular, this involves being able to articulate clearly both the precise course of events that will allow such cures to take place and any consequences of such actions for other elements of its risk quantification. For example:(1) where cures are driven by the
IFPRU 4.7.6GRP
To ensure that estimates of LGDs take into account the most up-to-date experience, the FCA expects a firm to take account of data for relevant incomplete workouts (ie, defaulted exposures for which the recovery process is still in progress, with the result that the final realised losses in respect of those exposures are not yet certain) (see article 179(1)(c) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.7GRP
To ensure that sovereign LGD models are sufficiently conservative in view of the estimation error that may arise from the lack of data on losses to sovereigns, the FCA expects a firm to apply a 45% LGD floor to each unsecured exposure in the sovereign asset class (see article 179(1)(a) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.8GRP
The FCA believes that an average reduction in property sales prices of 40% from their peak price, prior to the market downturn, forms an appropriate reference point when assessing downturn LGD for UK mortgage portfolios. This reduction captures both a fall in the value of the property due to house price deflation, as well as a distressed forced sale discount.
IFPRU 4.7.9GRP
Where a firm adjusts assumed house price values within its LGD models to take account of current market conditions (for example, appropriate house price indices), the FCA recognises that realised falls in market values may be captured automatically. A firm adopting such approaches may remove observed house price falls from its downturn house price adjustment so as not to double count. A firm wishing to apply such an approach must seek the consent of the FCA and be able to demonstrate
IFPRU 4.7.10GRP
To ensure that its LGD estimates are oriented towards downturn conditions, the FCA expects a firm to have a process through which it:(1) identifies appropriate downturn conditions for each IRB exposure class within each jurisdiction;(2) identifies adverse dependencies, if any, between default rates and recovery rates; and(3) incorporates adverse dependencies, if identified, between default rates and recovery rates in the firm's estimates of LGD in a manner that meets the requirements
IFPRU 4.7.11GRP
To ensure that its LGD estimates incorporate material discount effects, the FCA expects a firm's methods for discounting cash flows to take account of the uncertainties associated with the receipt of recoveries for a defaulted exposure. For example, by adjusting cash flows to certainty-equivalents or by using a discount rate that embodies an appropriate risk premium; or by a combination of the two.
IFPRU 4.7.12GRP
If a firm intends to use a discount rate that does not take full account of the uncertainty in recoveries, the FCA expects it to be able to explain how it has otherwise taken into account that uncertainty for the purposes of calculating LGDs. This can be addressed by adjusting cash flows to certainty-equivalents or by using a discount rate that embodies an appropriate risk premium for defaulted assets, or by a combination of the two (see article 5(2) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.13GRP
The FCA expects a firm using advanced IRB approaches to have done the following in respect of wholesale LGD estimates:(1) applied LGD estimates at transaction level;(2) ensured that all LGD estimates (both downturn and non-downturn) are cautious, conservative and justifiable, given the paucity of observations. Under article 179(1)(a) of the EU CRR, estimates must be derived using both historical experience and empirical evidence, and not be based purely on judgemental consideration.
IFPRU 4.7.14GRP
The FCA uses a framework for assessing the conservatism of a firm's wholesale LGD models for which there are a low number of defaults. This framework is set out in IFPRU 4 Annex 2G (Wholesale LGD and EAD framework) and does not apply to sovereign LGD estimates which are floored at 45%. This framework is also in the process of being used to assess the calibration of a firm's material LGD-models for low-default portfolios.
IFPRU 4.7.15GRP
In the following cases, the FCA expects a firm to determine the effect of applying the framework in IFPRU 4 Annex 2G (Wholesale LGD and EAD framework) to models which include LGD values that are based on fewer than 20 'relevant' data points (as defined in IFPRU 4 Annex 2G):(1) the model is identified for review by the FCA; or(2) the firm submits a request for approval for a material change to its LGD model.
IFPRU 4.7.16GRP
The FCA considers that both of the following approaches in relation to calculating unexpected loss of defaulted assets are acceptable in principle:(1) the independent calculation approach; and1(2) subtraction of the best estimate of expected loss from post-default LGD.
IFPRU 4.7.17GRP
Where an independent calculation approach is adopted for the calculation of unexpected loss on defaulted assets, the FCA expects a firm to ensure that estimates are at least equal, at a portfolio level, to a 100% risk weight, ie,1 8% capital requirement on the amount outstanding net of provisions (see article 181(1)(h) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.18GRP
The extent to which a borrower's assets are already given as collateral will clearly affect the recoveries available to unsecured creditors. If the degree to which assets are pledged is substantial, this will be a material driver of LGDs on such exposures. Although potentially present in all transactions, the FCA expects a firm to be particularly aware of this driver in situations in which borrowing on a secured basis is the normal form of financing, leaving relatively few assets
IFPRU 4.7.19GRP
The FCA expects a firm to take into account the effect of assets being substantially used as collateral for other obligations estimating LGDs for borrowers for which this is the case. The FCA expects a firm not to use unadjusted data sets that ignore this impact, and note that it is an estimate for downturn conditions that is normally required. In the absence of relevant data to estimate this effect, conservative LGDs potentially of 100% are expected to be used (see articles
IFPRU 2.3.1GRP
(1) IFPRU 2.3 sets out guidance on IFPRU 2.2 (Adequacy of financial resources) so far as it applies to an IFPRU investment firm. In particular, guidance on how a firm should carry out its ICAAP, as well as some factors the FCA will take into consideration when undertaking a SREP. The terms ICAAP and SREP are explained in IFPRU 2.3.3 G. IFPRU 2.3.48 G to IFPRU 2.3.52 R are rules that apply to a firm with an IRB permission.(2) IFPRU 2.3 is mainly written on the basis that IFPRU
IFPRU 2.3.7GRP
The FCA will review a firm'sICAAP, including the results of the firm's stress tests carried out under IFPRU and the EUCRR, as part of its SREP. Provided that the FCA is satisfied with the appropriateness of a firm's capital assessment, the FCA will take into account that firm'sICAAP and stress tests in its SREP. More material on stress tests for a firm with an IRB permission can be found in IFPRU 2.3.50 R to IFPRU 2.3.54 G.11
IFPRU 2.3.36GRP
(1) This paragraph applies to a proportional ICAAP in the case of a firm that is a significant IFPRU firm (see IFPRU 1.2.3 R) whose activities are complex.(2) A proportional approach to that firm'sICAAP should cover the matters identified in IFPRU 2.3.34 G and IFPRU 2.3.35 G, but is likely also to involve the use of models, most of which will be integrated into its day-to-day management and operation.(3) Models of the kind referred to in (2) may be linked to generate an overall
IFPRU 4.3.4GRP
Article 20(6) of the EU CRR states that, where the IRB approach is used on a unified basis by those entities which fall within the scope of article 20(6) (EEA group), the FCA is required to permit certain IRB requirements to be met on a collective basis by members of that group. In particular, the FCA considers that, where a firm is reliant upon a rating system or data provided by another member of its group, it will not meet the condition that it is using the IRB approach on
IFPRU 4.3.7GRP
Where a firm seeks to demonstrate to the FCA that the effect of its non-compliance with the requirements of Part Three, Title II Chapter 3 of the EU CRR (Internal ratings based approach) is immaterial under article 146(b) of the EU CRR (Measures to be taken where the requirements cease to be met), the FCA expects the firm to have taken into account all instances of non-compliance with the requirements of the IRB approach and to have demonstrated that the overall effect of non-compliance
IFPRU 4.3.9GRP
The FCA expects a firm seeking to apply the Standardised Approach on a permanent basis to certain exposures to have a well-documented policy explaining the basis on which exposures are to be selected for permanent exemption from the IRB approach. This policy should be provided to the FCA when the firm applies for permission to use the IRB approach and maintained thereafter. Where a firm also wishes to undertake sequential implementation, the FCA expects the firm's roll-out plan
IFPRU 4.3.11GRP
Where a firm wishes permanently to apply the Standardised Approach to certain business units on the grounds that they are non-significant and/or certain exposure classes or types of exposures on the grounds that they are immaterial in terms of size and perceived risk profile, the FCA expects to permit a firm to make use of this exemption only to the extent that the risk-weighted exposure amount calculated under article 92(3)(a) and (f) of the EU CRR that are based on the Standardised
IFPRU 4.3.14GRP
Where a firm wishes to permanently apply the Standardised Approach to exposures to connected counterparties in accordance with article 150(1)(e) of the EU CRR, the FCA would normally expect to grant permission to do so only if the firm had a policy that provided for the identification of connected counterparties exposures that would be permanently exempted from the IRB approach and also identified connected counterparty exposures (if any) that would not be permanently exempted
IFPRU 4.3.15GRP
In the event that a firm with IRB permission acquires a significant new business, it should discuss with the FCA whether sequential roll-out of the firm's IRB approach to these exposures would be appropriate. In addition, the FCA would expect to review any existing time period and conditions for sequential roll-out and determine whether these remain appropriate (see article 148 of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.3.17GRP
The FCA expects a firm to ensure that all documentation relating to its rating systems (including any documentation referenced in this chapter or required by the EU CRR that relate to the IRB approach) is stored, arranged and indexed in such a way that it could make them all, or any subset thereof, available to the FCA immediately on demand or within a short time thereafter.
IFPRU 4.6.29GRP
The FCA expects a firm using a rating agency grades as the primary driver in its IRB models to be able to demonstrate (and document) compliance with the following criteria:(1) the firm has its own internal rating scale;(2) the firm has a system and processes in place that allow it to continuously collect and analyse all relevant information, and the 'other relevant information' considered by the firm in accordance with article 171(2) of the EU CRR reflects the information collected
IFPRU 4.11.1GRP
The FCA considers that income-producing real estate (IPRE) is a particularly difficult asset class for which to build effective rating systems that are compliant with the requirements of the internal ratings based (IRB) approach.
IFPRU 4.11.13GRP
The FCA expects that, as most models of this type will be able to produce one-year estimates of PD that correspond closely to point-in-time estimates, firms should conduct robust back-testing of such estimates by comparing them with realised default rates. Firms would need to demonstrate that the results of such back-testing meet pre-defined and stringent standards in order for the FCA to be satisfied that the IRB requirements are met.
IFPRU 4.4.15GRP
The FCA expects a firm that is unable to produce a long run estimate, as described above, to consider what action it would be appropriate for it to take to comply with article 180(1)(a) of the EU CRR. In some circumstances, it may be appropriate for a firm to need to amend its rating system so that the PD used as an input into the IRB own funds requirement is an appropriately conservative estimate of the actual default rate expected over the next year. However, such an approach
FEES 3.2.7RRP
Table of application, notification, vetting and other fees payable to the FCA3231Part 1: Application, notification and vetting fees3131(1) Fee payer(2) Fee payable (£)37Due date(a) Any applicant for Part 4A permission (including an incoming firm applying for top-up permission) whose fee is not payable pursuant to sub- paragraph (zza)52 of this table26(1) Unless (2),41 (3) or (4)41 applies, in1 respect of a particular application, the highest of the tariffs set out in FEES 3 Annex
SUP 16.12.22ARRP

2The applicable data items referred to in SUP 16.12.4 R are set out according to type of firm in the table below:

45Description ofData item

Firms' prudential category and applicable data item (note 1)

IFPRU

BIPRU firm

Exempt CAD firmssubject toIPRU(INV)Chapter 13

Firms(other thanexempt CAD firms) subject toIPRU(INV)Chapter 13

Firmsthat are also in one or more ofRAGs1 to 6 and not subject toIPRU(INV)Chapter 13

Solvency statement

No standard format (note 11)

Balance Sheet

FSA001/FINREP (Notes 2 and 29)

FSA001 (Note 2)

FSA029

Section A RMAR

Income Statement

FSA002/FINREP (Notes 2 and 29)

FSA002 (Note 2)

FSA030

Section B RMAR

Capital Adequacy

COREP (Note 29)

FSA003 (Note 2)

FSA032

Section D1 62 RMAR (Note 23)

5050

Credit risk

COREP (Note 29)

FSA004 (Notes 2, 3)

Market risk

COREP (Note 29)

FSA005 (Notes 2, 4)

Market risk - supplementary

FSA006 (note 5)

FSA006 (Note 5)

Operational risk

COREP (Note 29)

Large exposures

COREP (Note 29)

Exposures between core UK group and non-core large exposures group

FSA018 (note 12)

Solo consolidation data

FSA016

FSA016

Pillar 2 questionnaire

FSA019 (note 8)

FSA019 (Note 8)

Non-EEA sub-group

COREP (Note 29)

FSA028 (Note 9)

Professional indemnity insurance (note 15)

Section E RMAR

Section E RMAR

Section E RMAR

Section E RMAR

Threshold Conditions

Section F RMAR

Section F RMAR

Training and Competence

Section G RMAR

Section G RMAR

Section G RMAR

Section G RMAR

Section G RMAR

COBS data

Section H RMAR

Section H RMAR

Section H RMAR

Section H RMAR

Section H RMAR

Client money and client assets

Section C RMAR

Section C RMAR

Section C RMAR

Section C RMAR

Fees and levies

Section J RMAR

Section J RMAR

Section J RMAR

Section J RMAR

Adviser charges

Section K RMAR (Note 26)

Section K RMAR (Note 26)

Section K RMAR (Note 26)

Section K RMAR (Note 26)

Section K RMAR (Note 26)

IRB portfolio risk

FSA045 (note 13)

FSA045 (Note 13)

Securitisation: non-trading book

COREP (note 29)

FSA046 (Note 14)

Daily Flows

FSA047/COREP (Notes 16, 19, 21, 24 and 29)

Enhanced Mismatch Report

FSA048/COREP (Notes 16, 19, 21, 24 and 29)

Liquidity Buffer Qualifying Securities

FSA050/COREP (Notes 17, 20, 21, 24 and 29)

Funding Concentration

FSA051/COREP (Notes 17, 20, 21, 24 and 29)

Pricing data

FSA052/COREP (Notes 17, 20, 21, 24 and 29)

Retail and corporate funding

FSA053/COREP (Notes 17, 20, 21, 24 and 29)

Currency Analysis

FSA054/COREP (Notes 17, 20, 21, 24 and 29)

Systems and Controls Questionnaire

FSA055/COREP (Notes 18, 24 and 29)

FSA055 (Notes 18 and 24)

Securitisation: trading book

COREP (Note 29)

FSA058 (Note 22)

Supplementary capital data for collective portfolio management investment firms

FIN067 (Note 28)

FIN068 (Note 28)

Note 1

When submitting the completed data item required, a firm must use the format of the data item set out in SUP 16 Annex 24 R, or SUP 16 Annex 18A R in the case of the RMAR. Guidance notes for completion of the data items are contained in SUP 16 Annex 25 G, or SUP 16 Annex 18B G in the case of the RMAR.

Note 2

Firms that are members of a UK consolidation group are also required to submit this report on a UK consolidation group basis.

Note 3

This applies to a firm that is required to submit data item FSA003 and, at any time within80 the 12 months up to its latest accounting reference date ("the relevant period"), was reporting data item FSA004 ("Firm A") or not reporting this item ("Firm B").

In the case of Firm A it must report this data item if one or both of its last two submissions in the relevant period show that the threshold was exceeded.

In the case of Firm B it must report this item if both the last two submissions in the relevant period show that the threshold has been exceeded.

The threshold is exceeded where data element 77A in data item FSA003 is greater than £10 million, or its currency equivalent, at the relevant reporting date for the firm.

5555

Note 4

This applies to a firm that is required to submit data item FSA003 and, at any time within the 12 months up to its latest accounting reference date ("the relevant period"), was reporting data item FSA005 ("Firm A") or not reporting this item ("Firm B").

In the case of Firm A it must report this data item if one or both of its last two submissions in the relevant period show that the threshold was exceeded.

In the case of Firm B it must report this item if both the last two submissions in the relevant period show that the threshold has been exceeded.

The threshold is exceeded where data element 93A in data item FSA003 is greater than £50 million, or its currency equivalent, at the relevant reporting date for the firm.

Note 5

Only applicable to firms with a VaR model permission.

Note 6

[deleted]

Note 7

[deleted]

Note 8

Only applicable to IFPRU investment firms and BIPRU firms that:

(a) are subject to consolidated supervision under BIPRU 8, except those that are either included within the consolidated supervision of a group that includes a UK credit institution, or that have been granted an investment firm consolidation waiver; or

(b) have been granted an investment firm consolidation waiver; or

(c) are not subject to consolidated supervision under BIPRU 8.

An IFPRU investment firm and a BIPRU firm under (a) must complete the report on the basis of its UK consolidation group. An IFPRU investment firm and a BIPRU firm under (b) or (c) must complete the report on the basis of its solo position.

Note 9

This will be applicable to firms that are members of a UK consolidation group on the reporting date.

Note 10

[deleted]55

55

Note 11

Only applicable to a firm that is a sole trader or a partnership, when the report must be submitted by each partner.

Note 12

Only applicable to a firm that has both a core UK group and a non-core large exposures group.

Note 13

Only applicable to firms that have an IRB permission.

Note 14

Only applicable to firms that hold securitisation positions, or are the originator or sponsor of securitisations of non-trading bookexposures.

Note 15

This item only applies to firms that are subject to an FCA requirement to hold professional indemnity insurance and are not exempt CAD firms.

Note 16

A firm must complete this item separately on each of the following bases (if applicable).

(1) It must complete it on a solo basis. Therefore even if it has a solo consolidation waiver it must complete the item on an unconsolidated basis by reference to the firm alone.

(2) If it is a group liquidity reporting firm in a DLG by default and is a UK lead regulated firm, it must complete the item on the basis of that group.

(3) If it is a group liquidity reporting firm in a UK DLG by modification, it must complete the item on the basis of that group.

(4) If it is a group liquidity reporting firm in a non-UK DLG by modification, it must complete the item on the basis of that group.

Note 17

A firm must complete this item separately on each of the following bases that are applicable.

(1) It must complete it on a solo basis unless it is a group liquidity reporting firm in a UK DLG by modification. Therefore even if it has a solo consolidation waiver it must complete the item on an unconsolidated basis by reference to the firm alone.

(2) If it is a group liquidity reporting firm in a UK DLG by modification, it must complete the item on the basis of that group.

Note 18

If it is a non-ILAS BIPRU firm, it must complete it on a solo basis. Therefore even if it has a solo consolidation waiver it must complete the item on an unconsolidated basis by reference to the firm alone.

Note 19

(1) This item must be reported in the reporting currency.

(2) If any data element is in a currency or currencies other than the reporting currency, all currencies (including the reporting currency) must be combined into a figure in the reporting currency.

(3) In addition, all material currencies (which may include the reporting currency) must each be recorded separately (translated into the reporting currency). However if:

(a) the reporting frequency is (whether under a rule or under a waiver) quarterly or less than quarterly; or

(b) the only material currency is the reporting currency;

(3) does not apply.

(4) If there are more than three material currencies for this data item, (3) only applies to the three largest in amount. A firm must identify the largest in amount in accordance with the following procedure.

(a) For each currency, take the largest of the asset or liability figure as referred to in the definition of material currency.

(b) Take the three largest figures from the resulting list of amounts.

(5) The date as at which the calculations for the purposes of the definition of material currency are carried out is the last day of the reporting period in question.

(6) The reporting currency for this data item is whichever of the following currencies the firm chooses, namely USD (the United States Dollar), EUR (the euro), GBP (sterling), JPY (the Japanese Yen), CHF (the Swiss Franc), CAD (the Canadian Dollar) or SEK (the Swedish Krona).

Note 20

Note 19 applies, except that paragraphs (3), (4) and (5) do not apply, meaning that material currencies must not be recorded separately.

Note 21

Any changes to reporting requirements caused by a firm receiving an intra-group liquidity modification (or a variation to one) do not take effect until the first day of the next reporting period applicable under the changed reporting requirements for the data item in question if the firm receives that intra-group liquidity modification or variation part of the way through such a period. If the change is that the firm does not have to report a particular data item or does not have to report it at a particular reporting level, the firm must nevertheless report that item or at that reporting level for any reporting period that has already begun. This paragraph is subject to anything that the intra-group liquidity modification says to the contrary.

Note 22

Only applicable to firms that hold securitisation positions in the trading book and/ or are the originator or sponsor of securitisations held in the trading book.

Note 23

Where a firm submits data items for both RAG 7 and RAG 9, the firm must complete Section D1.73

Note 24

FSA047, FSA048, FSA050, FSA051, FSA052, FSA053 and FSA054 must be completed by an ILAS BIPRU firm. An ILAS BIPRU firm does not need to complete FSA055. A non-ILAS BIPRU firm must complete FSA055 and does not need to complete FSA047, FSA048, FSA050, FSA051, FSA052, FSA053 and FSA054.

Note 25

This data item must be reported only in the currencies named in FSA052, so that liabilities in GBP are reported in GBP in rows 1 to 4, those in USD are reported in USD in rows 5 to 8, and those in Euro are reported in Euro in rows 9 to 12. Liabilities in other currencies are not to be reported.

Note 26

This item only applies to firms that provide advice on retail investment products and P2P agreements67.

Note 27

[deleted]51

Note 28

Only applicable to firms that are collective portfolio management investment firms.

Note 29

Requirements under COREP and FINREP should be determined with reference to the EU CRR and applicable technical standards.

IFPRU 6.3.28GRP
To achieve a soundness standard comparable to those under the IRB approach, LGD estimates should reflect the economic cycle. Therefore, the FCA expects a firm to incorporate dependence of the recovery rate on the economic cycle into the IRC model. Should the firm use a conservative parameterisation to comply with the IRB standard of the use of downturn estimates, evidence of this should be submitted in quarterly reporting to the FCA, bearing in mind that for trading portfolios,
IFPRU 4.5.4GRP
The FCA would expect to replace 90 days with 180 days in the days past due component of the definition of default for exposures secured by residential real estate in the retail exposure class, and/or for exposures to PSEs,1 where this was requested by the firm. Where this occurred, it would be specified in the firm's IRB permission.
IFPRU 4.10.5GRP
In the case of a portfolio for which there is insufficient default experience to provide any confidence in statistical measures of discriminative power, the FCA expects a firm to use other methods. For example, analysis of whether the firm's rating systems and an external measurement approach (eg, external ratings) rank common obligors in broadly similar ways. Where such an approach is used, the FCA would expect a firm to ensure it does not systematically adjust its individual
IFPRU 4.1.2GRP
This chapter:(1) implements article 78 of CRD;(2) contains the rules that exercise the discretion afforded to the FCA as competent authority under articles 115, 119(5), 124(2), 125(3), 126(2), 178(1)(b), 244(2), 245(2),2 286(2), 298(4) and 380 of the EU CRR; and(3) contains the guidance in relation to the IRB approach, securitisation, counterparty credit risk and credit risk mitigation.