Related provisions for BIPRU 4.3.86
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The capital resources requirement for a firm (other than a credit union) carrying on regulated activities, including designated investment business, is the higher of:(1) the requirement which is applied by this chapter according to the activity or activities of the firm (treating the relevant rules as applying to the firm by disregarding its designated investment business); and(2) the financial resource requirement which is applied by the Interim Prudential sourcebook for investment
Table: Application of capital resources requirements Regulated activitiesProvisions1.(a) insurance mediation activity; or (b) home finance mediation activity1(or both); and no other regulated activity.1MIPRU 4.2.11 R2.(a) home financing1; or (b) home financing1 and home finance administration1; and no other regulated activity.111111MIPRU 4.2.12 R to MIPRU 4.2.17 E3.home finance administration;1 and no other regulated activity.11MIPRU 4.2.18 R to MIPRU 4.2.19 R4.insurance mediation
(1) When seeking to rely on the second condition, a firm should not provide material credit enhancement in respect of the loan or plan1 unless it deducts the amount of the credit enhancement from its capital resources before meeting its capital resources requirement.(2) Credit enhancement includes:(a) any holding of subordinated loans or notes in a transferee that is a special purpose vehicle; or(b) over collateralisation by transferring loans or plans1 to a larger aggregate value
The capital resources requirement for a firm carrying on home finance administration1only, which has all or part of the home finance transactions1that it administers on its balance sheet, is the amount which is applied to a firm carrying on home financing1or home financing1and home finance administration1(and no other regulated activity) (see MIPRU 4.2.12 R). 111111111
Tier one capital and tier two capital are the only type of capital resources that a BIPRU firm may use for the purpose of meeting:(1) the credit risk capital component;(2) the operational risk capital requirement;(3) the counterparty risk capital component; and(4) the base capital resources requirement.
The conditions that an item of capital of a firm must comply with under GENPRU 2.2.62R (2)1 are as follows:(1) it is issued by the firm;(2) it is fully paid and the proceeds of issue are immediately and fully available to the firm;(3) it:(a) cannot be redeemed at all or can only be redeemed on a winding up of the firm; or(b) complies with the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.70 R (Basic requirements for redeemability) and GENPRU 2.2.76 R (Redeemable instrument subject to a step-up);(4)
4The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.64R (4) is to ensure that a firm retains flexibility over the payment of coupons and can preserve cash in times of financial stress. However, a firm may include, as part of the capital instrument terms, a right to make payments of a coupon mandatory if an item of capital becomes ineligible to form part of its capital resources (e.g. through a change in the relevant rules) and the firm has notified the FSA that the instrument is ineligible.
The FSA considers that dividend pushers diminish the quality of capital by breaching the principle of complete discretion over coupons set out in GENPRU 2.2.64R (4). A dividend pusher operates so that, in a given period of time, payments must be made on senior securities if payments have previously been made on junior securities or securities ranking pari passu. As such, dividend pushers may not be included in the terms of tier one capital, unless the firm has the option to fund
A firm may not include a capital instrument in its tier one capital resources, unless its contractual terms are such that:(1) (if it is redeemable other than in circumstances set out in GENPRU 2.2.64R (3)(a) (redemption on a winding up)) it is redeemable only at the option of the firm or, in the case of a BIPRU firm, on the date of maturity;88(2) the firm cannot exercise that redemption right:(a) before the fifth anniversary of its date of issue;(b) unless it has given notice
The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.71 R to GENPRU 2.2.72 R is this. In general a tier one instrument should not be redeemable by the firm before its fifth anniversary. However there may be circumstances in which it would be reasonable for the firm to redeem it before then. GENPRU 2.2.71 R allows the firm to include a right to redeem the instrument before the fifth anniversary in certain circumstances. A tax call is an example of a term that may be allowed. GENPRU 2.2.71 R says that the
8The FSA considers that, in order to comply with GENPRU 2.2.74 R, the firm should, at a minimum, provide the FSA with the following information:(1) a comprehensive explanation of the rationale for the redemption;(2) the firm's financial and solvency position before and after the redemption, in particular whether that redemption, or other foreseeable internal and external events or circumstances, may increase the risk of the firm breaching its capital resources requirement;(3)
A capital instrument must (in addition to meeting the requirements of the rules about eligibility for inclusion in tier two capital) meet the following conditions before it can be included in a firm'supper tier two capital resources:(1) it must have no fixed maturity date;(2) the terms of the instrument must provide for the firm to have the option to defer any coupon on the debt, except that the firm need not have that right in the case of a coupon payable in the form of an item
The value of general/collective provisions which a firm may include in its tier two capital resources as referred to in GENPRU 2.2.187 R may not exceed 1.25% of the sum of the following:(1) the sum of the market risk capital requirement and the operational risk capital requirement (if applicable), multiplied by a factor of 12.5; and(2) the sum of risk weighted assets under the standardised approach for credit risk.
If a BIPRU firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach for the purposes of BIPRU 14 (Capital requirements for settlement and counterparty risk) it must not include valuation adjustments referred to in BIPRU 14.2.18 R (1) (Treatment of expected loss amounts) in its capital resources except in accordance with that rule.
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, BIPRU 6, BIPRU 7, BIPRU 10 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure
For equity exposures, the requirement under BIPRU 11.5.4 R (3) applies to:(1) each of the approaches ( the simple risk weight approach, the PD/LGD approach and the internal models approach) provided for in BIPRU 4.7.5 R to BIPRU 4.7.6 R, BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.11 R, BIPRU 4.7.14 R to BIPRU 4.7.16 R, BIPRU 4.7.24 R to BIPRU 4.7.25 R;(2) exchange traded exposures, private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios, and other exposures;(3) exposures subject to supervisory
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to counterparty credit risk:(1) a discussion of the methodology used to assign internal capital and credit limits for counterparty credit exposures;(2) a discussion of policies for securing collateral and establishing credit reserves;(3) a discussion of policies with respect to wrong-way riskexposures;(4) a discussion of the impact of the amount of collateral the firm would have to provide given a downgrade
A firm must disclose its capital resources requirements separately for each risk referred to in (1) and (2).(1) in respect of its trading-book business, its:(a) interest rate PRR;(b) equity PRR;1(c) option PRR;(d) collective investment schemesPRR;(e) counterparty risk capital component; and(f) concentration risk capital component; and(2) in respect of all of its business activities, its:(a) commodity PRR; and(b) foreign currency PRR1[Note: BCD Annex XII Part 2 point 9]
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 must disclose the following information:(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(2) the roles played by the firm in the securitisation process;(3) an indication of the extent of the firm's involvement in each of them;(4) the approaches to calculating risk weighted exposure amounts that the firm follows for its securitisation activities;(5) a summary of the firm's
Originators of the following types of securitisation are exempt from the capital requirement in BIPRU 9.13.1 R:(1) securitisations of revolving exposures whereby investors remain fully exposed to all future draws by borrowers so that the risk on the underlying facilities does not return to the originator even after an early amortisation event has occurred; and(2) securitisations where any early amortisation provision is solely triggered by events not related to the performance
For an originator subject to the capital requirement in BIPRU 9.13.1 R the total of the risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as defined in BIPRU 9.13.4 R or BIPRU 9.13.6 R) and the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated under BIPRU 9.13.1 R must be no greater than the greater of:(1) the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as so defined); and(2) the risk weighted exposure
Deduction of net gains, if any, arising from the capitalisation of future income required under GENPRU 2.2.90 R (Core tier one capital: profit and loss account and other reserves: Securitisation) must be treated outside the maximum amount indicated in BIPRU 9.13.9 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 23]
An early amortisation provision must be treated as controlled for the purposes of this section where the following conditions are met:(1) the originator has an appropriate capital/liquidity plan in place to ensure that it has sufficient capital and liquidity available in the event of an early amortisation;(2) throughout the duration of the transaction there is a pro rata sharing between the originators interest and the investors interest (as defined in BIPRU 9.13.4 R or BIPRU
This chapter amplifies threshold condition 4 (Adequate resources) by providing that a firm must meet, on a continuing basis, a basic solvency requirement and a minimum capital resources requirement. This chapter also amplifies Principle 4 which requires a firm to maintain adequate financial resources by setting out capital requirements for a firm according to the regulated activity or activities it carries on.
Capital has an important role to play in protecting consumers and complements the roles played by professional indemnity insurance and client money protection (see the client money rules). Capital provides a form of protection for situations not covered by a firm's professional indemnity insurance and it provides the funds for the firm's PII excess, which it has to pay out of its own finances (see MIPRU 3.2.11 R and MIPRU 3.2.12 R for the relationship between the firm's capital
More generally, having adequate capital gives the firm a degree of resilience and some indication to consumers of creditworthiness, substance and the commitment of its owners. It reduces the possibility of a shortfall of funds and provides a cushion against disruption if the firm ceases to trade.
There is a greater risk to consumers, and a greater adverse impact on market confidence, if a firm holding client money or other client assets fails. For this reason, the capital resources rules in this chapter clearly distinguish between firms holding client assets and those that do not.
If the calculation of the amount of an exposure or of a combination of exposures under BIPRU 13 would materially understate the amount of the counterparty credit risk the firm must increase the amount of the credit risk capital requirement by an amount sufficient to compensate for that understatement.
If a firm in relation to an exposure covered by BIPRU 13:(1) has an exposure of a non-standard type; or(2) an exposure that is part of a non-standard arrangement; or(3) has an exposure that, taken together with other exposures (whether or not they are subject to BIPRU 13), gives rise to a non-standard counterparty credit risk; or(4) is subject to the rule in BIPRU 13.2.1 R;it must notify the FSA as soon as practicable of that fact, the counterparty involved, the nature of the
The IRB approach is an alternative to the standardised approach for calculating a firm's credit risk capital requirements. It may be applied to all a firm'sexposures or to some of them, subject to various limitations on partial use as set out in BIPRU 4.2. Under the IRB approach capital requirements are based on a firm's own estimates of certain parameters together with other parameters set out in the Banking Consolidation Directive.
An IRB permission will modify GENPRU 2.1.51 R (Calculation of the credit risk capital requirement) by amending, to the extent set out in the IRB permission, the calculation of the credit risk capital requirement in accordance with BIPRU 4 and the other provisions of the Handbook relating to the IRB approach.
A firm must calculate its credit risk capital component as the sum of:(1) (for exposures to which the standardised approach is applied) the credit risk capital component as calculated under BIPRU 3.1.5 R; and(2) (for exposures to which the IRB approach is applied to which the standardised approach would otherwise apply in accordance with BIPRU 3.1.5 R (Credit risk capital component)), 8% of the total of the firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the
A firm must exclude material holdings in the notional calculation of the credit risk capital requirement for the purposes of BIPRU 8.4.13 R. A firm must identify whether it has any material holdings and the amount of them in accordance with GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) and GENPRU 2 Annex 4 (Capital resources table for a BIPRU investment firm deducting material holdings).
The calculation of the consolidated capital resources requirement of a firm's UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group involves taking the individual components that make up the capital resources requirement on a solo basis and applying them on a consolidated basis. Those components are the capital charge for credit risk (the credit risk capital requirement), the capital charge for market risk (the market risk capital requirement), the capital charge for operational risk (the
A firm may not apply the second method in BIPRU 8.7.13R (3) (accounting consolidation for the whole group) or apply accounting consolidation to parts of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group under method three as described in BIPRU 8.7.13R (4)(a) for the purposes of the calculation of the consolidated market risk requirement unless the group or sub-group and the undertakings in that group or sub-group satisfy the conditions in this rule. Instead the firm must use the
(1) This rule applies if:(a) a firm is applying an accounting consolidation approach to part of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group under method three as described in BIPRU 8.7.13R (4)(a); and(b) the part of the group in (a) constitutes the whole of a group subject to the consolidated capital requirements of a competent authority under the CRD implementation measures relating to consolidation under the Banking Consolidation Directive or the Capital Adequacy Directive.(2)
(1) A firm that is significant in terms of its size, internal organisation and the nature, the scope and the complexity of its activities must establish a remuneration committee. (2) The remuneration committee must be constituted in a way that enables it to exercise competent and independent judgment on remuneration policies and practices and the incentives created for managing risk, capital and liquidity.(3) The chairman and the members of the remuneration committee must be
(1) A firm must ensure that any measurement of performance used to calculate variable remuneration components or pools of variable remuneration components:(a) includes adjustments for all types of current and future risks and takes into account the cost and quantity of the capital and the liquidity required; and(b) takes into account the need for consistency with the timing and likelihood of the firm receiving potential future revenues incorporated into current earnings.(2) A
The plus factor system is designed so that the more often a VaR model has under-predicted losses in the past, the higher should be the capital requirement based on the VaR model. It is intended to provide a capital incentive for the firm to continue to improve the accuracy of its VaR model.
(1) If a firm calculates its market risk capital requirement using a combination of the standard market risk PRR rules and either the VaR model approach or the VaR model approach with the CAD 1 model approach the PRR from each method must be added together.(2) A firm must take appropriate steps to ensure that all of the approaches are applied in a consistent manner.
(1) A firm must regularly perform a credit risk stress test to assess the effect of certain specific conditions on its total capital requirements for credit risk. The test to be employed must be one chosen by the firm. The test to be employed must be meaningful and reasonably conservative. Stressed portfolios must contain the vast majority of a firm's total exposures covered by the IRB approach.(2) The stress test must be designed to assess the firm's ability to meet its capital
The requirement in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) is to identify, in a forward-looking manner, severe but plausible downturn conditions relevant to business lines and jurisdictions and to determine the likely impact of those conditions on a firm's credit risk regulatory capital requirements. The description of the economic recession contained in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) should not be taken as stipulating one approach (e.g. statistical) over other approaches (e.g. scenario analysis) in the identification
(1) This paragraph applies to the use of statistical models and/or other mechanical methods to assign exposures to obligor grades, obligor pools, facility grades or facility pools.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate to the FSA that the model has good predictive power and that capital requirements are not distorted as a result of its use.(3) The input variables to the model must form a reasonable and effective basis for the resulting predictions. The model must not have material
If an originator or sponsor fails to comply with BIPRU 9.6.1 R in respect of a securitisation, it must:(1) hold capital against all of the securitised exposures associated with the securitisation transaction as if they had not been securitised; and(2) disclose publicly:(a) that it has provided non-contractual support, and(b) the regulatory capital impact of doing so.[Note: BCD Article 101(2)]
(1) The support described in BIPRU 9.6.5 G (1) is permitted by BIPRU 9.6.1 R.(2) The support described in BIPRU 9.6.5 G (3) is not permitted by BIPRU 9.6.1 R.(3) The support described in BIPRU 9.6.5 G (2) may be permitted by BIPRU 9.6.1 R under the following conditions:(a) the fact that the firm may give it is expressly set out in the contractual and marketing documents for the securitisation;(b) the nature of the support that the firm may give is precisely described in the documentation;(c)
To assess its expected capital requirements over the economic and business cycles, a firm may wish to project forward its financial position taking account of its business strategy and expected growth according to a range of assumptions as to the state of the economic or business environment which it faces. For example, an ICAAP should include an analysis of the impact that the actions of a firm's competitors might have on its performance, in order to see what changes in its environment
If a firm's current available capital resources are less than the capital resources requirement indicated by the stress test that need not be a breach of BIPRU 2.2.41 R. The firm may wish to set out any countervailing effects and off-setting actions that can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the FSA as being likely to reduce the difference referred to in the first sentence. The FSA is only likely to consider a demonstration of such actions as credible if those actions are
A firm may decide to hold additional capital to mitigate any weaknesses in its overall control environment. These weaknesses might be indicated by the following:(1) a failure by a firm to complete an assessment of its systems and controls to establish whether they comply with SYSC; or(2) a failure by a firm's senior management to approve its financial results; or(3) a failure by a firm to consider an analysis of relevant internal and external information on its business and control
(1) In order to discharge its functions under the Act, the FSA needs timely and accurate information about firms. The provision of this information on a regular basis enables the FSA to build up over time a picture of firms' circumstances and behaviour.(2) Principle 11 requires a firm to deal with its regulators in an open and cooperative way, and to tell the FSA appropriately anythingof which the FSA would reasonably expect notice. The reporting requirements are part of the
The Principles1 IntegrityA firm must conduct its business with integrity.2 Skill, care and diligenceA firm must conduct its business with due skill, care and diligence.3 Management and controlA firm must take reasonable care to organise and control its affairs responsibly and effectively, with adequate risk management systems.4 Financial prudenceA firm must maintain adequate financial resources.5 Market conductA firm must observe proper standards of market conduct.6 Customers'
For the purposes of GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU, except where a rule in GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provides for a different method of recognition or valuation:(1) when a firm, upon initial recognition, designates its liabilities as at fair value through profit or loss, it must always adjust any value calculated in accordance with GENPRU 1.3.4 R by subtracting any unrealised gains or adding back in any unrealised losses which are not attributable to changes in a benchmark interest rate;(2)
This section also has rules requiring a firm to carry out appropriate stress tests and scenario analyses for the risks it has previously identified and to establish the amount of financial resources needed in each of the circumstances and events considered in carrying out the stress tests and scenario analyses. In the case of a BIPRU firm, the FSA will consider as part of its SREP whether the BIPRU firm should hold a capital planning buffer and, in such a case, the amount and
(1) 6In identifying an appropriate range of adverse circumstances and events in accordance with GENPRU 1.2.42R (2):(a) a firm will need to consider the cycles it is most exposed to and whether these are general economic cycles or specific to particular markets, sectors or industries;(b) for the purposes of GENPRU 1.2.42R (2)(a), the amplitude and duration of the relevant cycle should include a severe downturn scenario based on forward looking hypothetical events, calibrated against