Related provisions for BIPRU 2.2.38

1 - 20 of 198 items.

Search Term(s)

Filter by Modules

Filter by Documents

Filter by Keywords

Effective Period

Similar To

To access the FCA Handbook Archive choose a date between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004 (From field only).

GENPRU 2.2.2GRP
GENPRU 2.1 (Calculation of capital resources requirement) sets out minimum capital resources requirements for a firm. This section (GENPRU 2.2) sets out how, for the purpose of these requirements, capital resources are defined and measured.
GENPRU 2.2.4GRP
This section also implements minimum EC standards for the composition of capital resources required to be held by a BIPRU firm. In particular it implements the third paragraph of article 95(2) of the EU CRR, applying16 Articles 56 – 61, Articles 63 – 64, Article 66 and Articles 120 – 122 of the Banking Consolidation Directive (2006/48/EC) and Articles 12 – 16, Article 17 (in part), Article 22(1)(c) (in part) and paragraphs 13 - 15 of Part B of Annex VII of the Capital Adequacy
GENPRU 2.2.6GRP
This table belongs to GENPRU 2.2.5 GTopicLocation of textApplication and purpose of the rules in this sectionGENPRU 2.2.1 R to GENPRU 2.2.4 GBIPRU firms that only have simple types of capital resources (simple capital issuers)GENPRU 2.2.7 GPrinciples underlying the definition of capital resourcesGENPRU 2.2.8 GWhich method of calculating capital resources applies to which type of firmGENPRU 2.2.17 R to GENPRU 2.2.19 RPurpose of the limits on the use of different forms of capitalGENPRU
GENPRU 2.2.7GRP
Parts of this section are irrelevant to a BIPRU firm whose capital resources consist of straightforward capital instruments. 232
GENPRU 2.2.8GRP
The FCA18 has divided its definition of capital into categories, or tiers, reflecting differences in the extent to which the capital instruments concerned meet the purpose and conform to the characteristics of capital listed in GENPRU 2.2.9 G. The FCA18 generally prefers a firm to hold higher quality capital that meets the characteristics of permanency and loss absorbency that are features of tier one capital. Capital instruments falling into core tier one capital can be included
GENPRU 2.2.9GRP
Tier one capital typically has the following characteristics:(1) it is able to absorb losses;(2) it is permanent or (in the case of a BIPRU firm) available when required;8(3) it ranks for repayment upon winding up, administration or similar procedure after all other debts and liabilities; and(4) it has no fixed costs, that is, there is no inescapable obligation to pay dividends or interest.
GENPRU 2.2.11GRP
Tier two capital includes forms of capital that do not meet the requirements for permanency and absence of fixed servicing costs that apply to tier one capital. Tier two capital includes, for example:(1) capital which is perpetual (that is, has no fixed term) but cumulative (that is, servicing costs cannot be waived at the issuer's option, although they may be deferred – for example, cumulative preference shares); only perpetual capital instruments may be included in upper tier
GENPRU 2.2.12GRP
Tier three capital consists of forms of capital conforming least well to the characteristics of capital listed in GENPRU 2.2.9 G: either subordinated debt of short maturity (upper tier three capital) or net trading book profits that have not been externally verified (lower tier three capital).
GENPRU 2.2.14GRP
Deductions should be made at the relevant stage of the calculation of capital resources to reflect capital that may not be available to the firm or assets of uncertain value (for example, holdings of intangible assets and assets)18.15
GENPRU 2.2.16GRP
A full list of deductions from capital resources is shown in the capital resources table applicable to the firm.
GENPRU 2.2.17RRP
A firm must calculate its capital resources in accordance with the version of the capital resources table applicable to the firm, subject to the capital resources gearing rules. The version of the capital resources table that applies to a firm is specified in the table in GENPRU 2.2.19 R.
GENPRU 2.2.18RRP
In the case of a BIPRU firm the capital resources table also sets out how the capital resources requirement is deducted from capital resources in order to decide whether its capital resources equal or exceed its capital resources requirement.
GENPRU 2.2.20GRP
GENPRU 2.2.19 R sets out three different methods of calculating capital resources for BIPRU firms16. The differences between the three methods relate to whether and how material holdings and illiquid assets are deducted when calculating capital resources. The method depends on whether a firm has an investment firm consolidation waiver. If a firm does have such a waiver, it should deduct illiquid assets, own groupmaterial holdings and certain contingent liabilities. If a firm does
GENPRU 2.2.24GRP
As the various components of capital differ in the degree of protection that they offer the firm and its customers and consumers, restrictions are placed on the extent to which certain types of capital are eligible for inclusion in a firm'scapital resources. These rules are called the capital resources gearing rules.
GENPRU 2.2.25RRP
A firm may include in a lower stage of capital, capital resources which are eligible for inclusion in a higher stage of capital if the capital resources gearing rules would prevent the use of that capital in that higher stage of capital. However:(1) the capital resources gearing rules applicable to that lower stage of capital apply to higher stage of capital included in that lower stage of capital; and(2) (subject to GENPRU 2.2.26 R and GENPRU 2.2.26A R)8 the rules in GENPRU governing
GENPRU 2.2.26RRP
An item of tier one capital which is included in a firm'stier two capital resources under GENPRU 2.2.25 R is not subject to the requirement to obtain a legal opinion in GENPRU 2.2.159R (12).
GENPRU 2.2.26ARRP
8A dated item of tier one capital which is included in a BIPRU firm'stier two capital resources under GENPRU 2.2.25 R is not subject to the requirement to have no fixed maturity date in GENPRU 2.2.177R (1).
GENPRU 2.2.44RRP
Tier one capital and tier two capital are the only type of capital resources that a BIPRU firm may use for the purpose of meeting:(1) the credit risk capital component;(2) [deleted] 1616(3) the counterparty risk capital component; and(4) the base capital resources requirement.
GENPRU 2.2.45RRP
GENPRU 2.2.44 R (and the capital resources gearing rules that relate to it) also applies for the purposes of any other requirement in the Handbook for which it is necessary to calculate the capital resources of a BIPRU firm, except for the purposes described in GENPRU 2.2.47 R and except as may otherwise be stated in the relevant part of the Handbook.
GENPRU 2.2.46RRP
For the purpose of GENPRU 2.2.44 R:(1) the amount of the items which may be included in a BIPRU firm'stier two capital resources must not exceed the amount calculated at stage F of the calculation in the capital resources table (Total tier one capital after deductions); and(2) the amount of the items which may be included in a BIPRU firm'slower tier two capital resources must not exceed 50% of the amount calculated at stage F of the calculation in the capital resources table.
GENPRU 2.2.47RRP
For the purposes of meeting:(1) the market risk capital requirement; (2) the concentration risk capital component; and(3) the fixed overheads requirement ;16a BIPRU firm may only use the following parts of its capital resources:(4) tier one capital to the extent that it is not required to meet the requirements in GENPRU 2.2.44 R (GENPRU 2.2.48 R explains how to calculate how much tier one capital is required to meet the requirements in GENPRU 2.2.44 R);(5) tier two capital to
GENPRU 2.2.48RRP
The amount of tier one capital and tier two capital that is not used to meet the requirements in GENPRU 2.2.44 R as referred to in GENPRU 2.2.47R (4) and (5)(5) is equal to the amount calculated at stage N of the calculation in the capital resources table (Total tier one capital plus tier two capital after deductions) less the parts of the capital resources requirement deducted immediately after stage N of the capital resources table (the parts of the capital resources requirements
GENPRU 2.2.49RRP
For the purpose of meeting the requirements in GENPRU 2.2.47R (1) to GENPRU 2.2.47R (3) and subject to GENPRU 2.2.50 R, a BIPRU firm must not include any item in either:(1) its tier two capital resources falling within GENPRU 2.2.47R (6) (excess tier two capital); or(2) its upper tier three capital resources;to the extent that the sum of (1) and (2) would exceed 250% of the amount resulting from the following calculation:(3) calculate the amount at stage F of the calculation in
GENPRU 2.2.50RRP
In relation to a BIPRU firm16 which calculates its capital resources under GENPRU 2 Annex 4 (Capital resources table for a BIPRU investment firm deducting material holdings), the figure of 200% replaces that of 250% in GENPRU 2.2.49 R.16
GENPRU 2.2.52GRP
This table belongs to GENPRU 2.2.51 GDescription of the stage of the capital resources calculationStage in the capital resources tableAmount (£)Total tier one capital after deductions 8Stage F80Total tier two capital8Stage K80DeductionsStage M(20)Total tier one capital and tier two capital after deductionsStage N140Upper tier three capital (this example assumes the firm has no lower tier three capital (trading book profits))Stage Q50Total capital resourcesStage T190
GENPRU 2.2.55GRP
The combined credit, operational and counterparty1 risk capital requirement is deducted after stage N of the capital resources table and the market risk requirement following stage T of the capital resources table. These calculations are shown in the table in GENPRU 2.2.56 G.
GENPRU 2.2.56GRP
This table belongs to GENPRU 2.2.55 GDescription of the stage of the capital resources calculationStage in the capital resources tableAmount (£)Total tier one capital and tier two capital after deductionsStage N140Credit and counterparty1 risk requirement16(100)Tier one capital and tier two capital available to meet market risk requirement40Tier three capitalStage Q50Total capital available to meet market risk requirement90Market risk requirement(90)Market risk requirement met
GENPRU 2.2.57GRP
The gearing limit in GENPRU 2.2.49 R (Combined tier two and tier three limits) requires that the upper tier three capital used to meet the market risk requirement does not exceed 250% of the relevant1tier one capital1.
GENPRU 2.2.58GRP
In this example it is assumed that the maximum possible amount of tier one capital is carried forward to meet the market risk requirement. There are other options as to the allocation of tier one capital and tier two capital to the credit and counterparty1 risk requirement.1In order to calculate the relevant tier one capital for the upper tier three gearing limit in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.49 R it is first necessary to allocate tier one capital and tier two capital to the individual
GENPRU 2.2.59GRP
The 250% gearing limit is met as the limit of £1251 is greater than the upper tier three capital of £50 used in this example.
GENPRU 2.2.60RRP
A BIPRU firm may use the capital resources used to meet the base capital resources requirement to meet any other part of the capital resources requirement.
GENPRU 2.2.61GRP
The explanation for GENPRU 2.2.60 R can be found in GENPRU 2.1.43 G8 (Base capital resources requirement). In brief the reason is that the base capital resources requirement is not in practice meant to act as an additional capital resources requirement. It is meant to act as a floor to the capital resources requirement.8
GENPRU 2.2.61ARRP
12This section applies to a firm intending to issue a capital instrument on or after 1 March 2012 for inclusion in its capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.61BRRP
12A firm must notify the FCA18 in writing of its intention to issue a capital instrument which it intends to include within its capital resources at least one month before the intended date of issue, unless there are exceptional circumstances which make it impracticable to give such a period of notice, in which event the firm must give as much notice as is practicable in those circumstances. When giving notice, a firm must:(1) provide details of the amount of capital the firm
GENPRU 2.2.61DRRP
12If a firm proposes to establish a debt securities program for the issue of capital instruments for inclusion within its capital resources, it must: (1) notify the FCA18 of the establishment of the program; and(2) provide the information required by GENPRU 2.2.61BR (1) to (4)at least one month before the first proposed drawdown. Any changes must be notified to the FCA18 in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.61C R.
GENPRU 2.2.61GGRP
12GENPRU 2.2.61B R provides that, in exceptional circumstances, a firm may provide less than one month's notice of the intended issue. The FCA18 is unlikely to consider circumstances to be exceptional unless they are such that there is a risk of a firm'scapital resources falling below its capital resources requirement if a one-month notification period is observed. In such circumstances, a firm should notify the FCA18 as soon as it has resolved to issue further capital, and
GENPRU 2.2.61HGRP
12Details of the notification to be provided by a BIPRU firm in relation to capital instruments issued by another undertaking in its group for inclusion in its capital resources or the consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group are set out in BIPRU 8.6.1A R to BIPRU 8.6.1F R. 17
GENPRU 2.2.62RRP
A firm may not include a capital instrument in its tier one capital resources unless it complies with the following conditions:(1) it is included in one of the categories in GENPRU 2.2.63 R;(2) it complies with the conditions set out in GENPRU 2.2.64 R;(3) i t is not excluded under GENPRU 2.2.65 R (Connected transactions); and(4) it is not excluded by any of the rules in GENPRU 2.2.
GENPRU 2.2.63RRP
The categories referred to in GENPRU 2.2.62R (1) are:(1) permanent share capital;(2) eligible partnership capital;(3) eligible LLP members' capital;(4) sole trader capital;(5) [deleted]188(6) [deleted]88(7) [deleted]1888(8) 18hybrid capital.8
GENPRU 2.2.65RRP
An item of capital does not qualify for inclusion as tier one capital if the issue of that item of capital by the firm is connected with one or more other transactions which, when taken together with the issue of that item, could result in that item of capital no longer displaying all of the characteristics set out in GENPRU 2.2.64R (1) to GENPRU 2.2.64R (9).
GENPRU 2.2.68ARRP
8A BIPRU firm must not include a capital instrument in its tier one capital resources if:(1) the capital instrument is affected by a dividend stopper; and (2) the dividend stopper operates in a way that hinders recapitalisation.
GENPRU 2.2.69DGRP
8The FCA18 considers that a BIPRU firm's financial resources are not preserved under GENPRU 2.2.69CR (2) unless, among other things, the conditions of the substituted payment are that:(1) there is no decrease in the amount of the firm'score tier one capital;(2) the deferred coupon is satisfied without delay using newly issued core tier one capital that has an aggregate fair value no more than the amount of the coupon;(3) the firm is not obliged to find new investors for the newly
GENPRU 2.2.69ERRP
8A BIPRU firm must cancel the payment of a coupon if circumstances arise whereby the payment of the coupon by newly issued instruments, in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.64R (4)(b), does not comply with the requirements of GENPRU 2.2.69C R.
GENPRU 2.2.69FGRP
(1) 8In relation to the cancellation or deferral of the payment of a coupon in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.64R (4) and GENPRU 2.2.64R (5), GENPRU 2.2.68A R, or GENPRU 2.2.69B R, the FCA18 expects that situations where a coupon may need to be cancelled or deferred will be resolved through analysis and discussion between the firm and the FCA18. If the FCA18 and the firm do not agree on the cancellation or deferral of the payment of a coupon, then the FCA18 may consider using its
GENPRU 2.2.71RRP
A firm may include a term in a tier one instrument allowing the firm to redeem it before the date in GENPRU 2.2.70R (2)(a) if the following conditions are satisfied:(1) the other conditions in GENPRU 2.2.70 R are met;(2) the circumstance that entitles the firm to exercise that right is18 a change in the applicable tax treatment or regulatory classification of those instruments;8(3) the circumstance that entitles the firm to exercise that right was not reasonably foreseeable at
GENPRU 2.2.72RRP
A firm must not redeem a tier one instrument in accordance with a term included under GENPRU 2.2.71 R.
GENPRU 2.2.74RRP
A firm must not redeem any tier one instrument that it has included in its tier one capital resources unless it has notified the FCA18 of its intention at least one month before it becomes committed to do so. When giving notice, the firm must provide details of its position after such redemption in order to show how it will:77(1) meet its capital resources requirement;78(2) 7have sufficient financial resources to meet the overall financial adequacy rule; and8(3) 8in the case
GENPRU 2.2.74BRRP
8If a BIPRU firm does not comply with its capital resources requirement or if the redemption of any dated tier one instrument would cause it to breach its capital resources requirement, it must suspend the redemption of its dated tier one instruments.
GENPRU 2.2.75RRP
If a firm gives notice of the redemption or repayment of any tier one instrument, the firm must no longer include that instrument in its tier one capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.77RRP
(1) This rule applies to a tier one instrument, tier two instrument or tier three instrument (instrument A) that under its terms is exchanged for or converted into another instrument or is subject to a similar process.(2) This rule also applies to instrument A if under its terms it is redeemed out of the proceeds of the issue of new securities.(3) If the instrument with which instrument A is replaced is included in the same stage of capital or a higher stage of capital as instrument
GENPRU 2.2.79EGRP
8In the circumstances provided for in GENPRU 2.2.79D R, a firm would purchase the instrument and, instead of cancelling it, the firm would hold the instrument for a temporary period. In that case a firm should have in place adequate policies to take into account any relevant regulations and rules, which include those relating to market abuse.
GENPRU 2.2.79GRRP
8A BIPRU firm must not purchase a tier one instrument in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.79A R unless it has notified the FCA18 of its intention at least one month before it becomes committed to doing so. When giving notice, the firm must provide details of its position after the purchase in order to show how, over an appropriate timescale, adequately stressed, and without planned recourse to the capital markets, it will:(1) meet its capital resources requirement; and(2) have sufficient
GENPRU 2.2.79HGRP
8The FCA18 considers that:(1) in order to comply with GENPRU 2.2.79G R, the firm should, at a minimum, provide the FCA18 with the following information:(a) a comprehensive explanation of the rationale for the purchase;(b) the firm's financial and solvency position before and after the purchase, in particular whether the purchase, or other foreseeable internal and external events or circumstances, may increase the risk of the firm breaching its capital resources requirement or
GENPRU 2.2.79IRRP
10A BIPRU firm must not announce to the holders of a tier one instrument its intention to purchase that instrument unless it has notified that intention to the FCA18 in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.79G R and it has not, during the period of one month from the date of giving notice, received an objection from the FCA18.
GENPRU 2.2.79JRRP
10If a BIPRU firm announces the purchase of any tier one instrument, the firm must no longer include that instrument in its tier one capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.79KRRP
10If a BIPRU firm does not comply with its capital resources requirement, or if the purchase of any tier one instrument would cause it to breach its capital resources requirement, it must suspend the purchase of tier one instruments.
GENPRU 2.2.79LGRP
10A firm should continue to exclude from its tier one capital resources all tier one instruments that are the subject of a purchase notification under GENPRU 2.2.79G R and for which the offer to purchase has been declined by the instrument holders unless the purchase offer period has expired.
GENPRU 2.2.80RRP
A firm may not include a share in its tier one capital resources unless (in addition to complying with the other relevant rules in GENPRU 2.2):(1) (in the case of a firm that is a company as defined in the Companies Act 20066 it is "called-up share capital" within the meaning given to that term in that Act; or66(2) [deleted]158815(3) (in the case of any other firm) it is:(a) in economic terms; and(b) in its characteristics as capital (including loss absorbency, permanency, ranking
GENPRU 2.2.81RRP
A firm may not include a capital instrument other than a share in its tier one capital resources unless it complies with GENPRU 2.2.80R (3).
GENPRU 2.2.83RRP
Permanent share capital means an item of capital which (in addition to satisfying GENPRU 2.2.64 R) meets the following conditions:(1) it is:(a) an ordinary share; or(b) a members' contribution; or(c) part of the initial fund of a mutual; or8(d) [deleted]15815(2) any coupon on it is not cumulative, the firm is under no obligation to pay a coupon in any circumstances and the firm has the right to choose the amount of any coupon that it pays;10(3) the terms upon which it is issued
GENPRU 2.2.83ARRP
10The conditions that a BIPRU firm's permanent share capital must comply with under GENPRU 2.2.83AR (4) or that a BIPRU firm'seligible partnership capital or eligible LLP members' capital must comply with under GENPRU 2.2.95 R are as follows:(1) it is undated;(2) the terms upon which it is issued do not give the holder a preferential right to the payment of a coupon;(3) the terms upon which it is issued do not indicate the amount of any coupon that may be payable nor impose an
GENPRU 2.2.83BRRP
10A BIPRU firm must not include in stage A of the capital resources table different classes of the same share type (for example "A ordinary shares" and "B ordinary shares") that meet the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.83 R and GENPRU 2.2.83A R but have differences in voting rights, unless it has notified the FCA18 of its intention at least one month before the shares are issued or (in the case of existing issued shares) the differences in voting rights take effect.
GENPRU 2.2.83CRRP
10A BIPRU firm must not pay a coupon on a tier one instrument included in stage A of the capital resources table if it has no distributable reserves.
GENPRU 2.2.83GGRP
10Under GENPRU 2.2.83ER (4), an effective right means that in practice the firm has, and exercises, full discretion to choose the amount of coupon that it pays (for example, it has not fettered that discretion by indicating to instrument holders that the coupon limit is the standard level of coupon they will receive).
GENPRU 2.2.84AGRP
10Under GENPRU 2.2.83AR (13) a tier one instrument does not meet the conditions for inclusion as core tier one capital if in isolation it does meet those requirements but fails to meet those requirements when other transactions are taken into account. Examples of those transactions include guarantees, pledges of assets or other side agreements provided by the firm to the holder of a tier one instrument designed to enhance the legal or economic seniority of the tier one instr
GENPRU 2.2.85RRP
(1) Negative amounts, including any interim net losses (but in the case of a BIPRU firm16, only material interim net losses), must be deducted from profit and loss account and other reserves.16(2) For these purposes material interim net losses mean unaudited interim losses arising from a firm'strading book and non-trading book business which exceed 10% of the sum of its capital resources calculated at stage A (Core tier one capital)8 in the capital resources table.8(3) If interim
GENPRU 2.2.86RRP
(1) This rule applies to trading book valuation adjustments or reserves referred to in GENPRU 1.3.29 R to 14GENPRU 1.3.35A G14 (Valuation adjustments and reserves). It applies to a BIPRU firm.(2) When valuation adjustments or reserves give rise to losses of the current financial year, a firm must treat them in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.85 R.(3) Valuation adjustments or reserves which exceed those made under the accounting framework to which a firm is subject must be treated in
GENPRU 2.2.87RRP
Dividends must be deducted from reserves as soon as they are foreseeable3.3
GENPRU 2.2.87AGRP
3Each firm must assess for itself when, in its particular circumstances, dividends are foreseeable. A dividend is foreseeable at the latest: (1) in the case of an interim dividend, when it is declared by the directors; or(2) in the case of a final dividend, when the directors approve the dividend to be proposed at the annual general meeting.
GENPRU 2.2.88RRP
A firm must account for a capital contribution as an increase in reserves and may, notwithstanding GENPRU 2.2.63 R, count that increase in reserves as core tier one capital.
GENPRU 2.2.89GRP
An item of capital qualifies as a capital contribution if it is a gift of capital (and, as such, is not repayable) and a coupon is not payable on it.
GENPRU 2.2.90RRP
In the case of a BIPRU firm which is the originator of a securitisation, net gains arising from the capitalisation of future income from the securitised assets and providing credit enhancement to positions in the securitisation must be excluded from profit and loss account and other reserves.
GENPRU 2.2.91GRP
Profit and loss account and other reserves should be valued in accordance with the rules in GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation).
GENPRU 2.2.93RRP
Eligible partnership capital means a partners' account:(1) into which capital contributed by the partners is paid; and(2) from which under the terms of the partnership agreement an amount representing capital may be withdrawn by a partner only if:(a) he ceases to be a partner and an equal amount is transferred to another such account by his former partners or any person replacing him as their partner;2(b) the partnership is wound up or2 otherwise dissolved; or22(c) the BIPRU firm
GENPRU 2.2.94RRP
Eligible LLP members' capital means a members' account:(1) into which capital contributed by the members is paid; and(2) from which under the terms of the limited liability partnership agreement an amount representing capital may be withdrawn by a member only if:(a) he ceases to be a member and an equal amount is transferred to another such account by his former fellow members or any person replacing him as a member; 2(b) the limited liability partnership is wound up or2 otherwise
GENPRU 2.2.95RRP
A BIPRU firm that is a partnership or a limited liability partnership may not include eligible partnership capital or eligible LLP members' capital in its tier one capital resources unless (in addition to GENPRU 2.2.62 R (General conditions relating to tier one capital)) it complies with GENPRU 2.2.83R (2) (10Coupons should not be cumulative or mandatory) and GENPRU 2.2.83A R to GENPRU 2.2.83C R (General conditions for eligibility of capital instruments as core tier one capital
GENPRU 2.2.97RRP
The items permanent share capital and share premium account (which form part of core tier one capital) do not apply to a BIPRU firm that is a partnership or a limited liability partnership.8
GENPRU 2.2.99GRP
A BIPRU firm that is a partnership or a limited liability partnership should include profit and loss (taking into account interim losses or material interim net losses) in its core tier one capital.
GENPRU 2.2.100RRP
A BIPRU firm which is a partnership or limited liability partnership must deduct at stage E of the calculation in the capital resources table (Deductions from tier one capital) the amount by which the aggregate of the amounts withdrawn by its partners or members exceeds the profits of that firm. Amounts of eligible partnership capital or eligible LLP members' capital repaid in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.93 R or GENPRU 2.2.94 R are not included in this calculation.
GENPRU 2.2.101RRP
(1) A firm must include share premium account relating to the issue of a share forming part of its core tier one capital in its core tier one capital.(2) A firm must include share premium account relating to the issue of a share forming part of another tier of capital in that other tier.(3) A firm that is incorporated under the Companies Act 20066 may include its share premium account as core tier one capital notwithstanding (2) to the extent that the terms of issue of the share
GENPRU 2.2.102RRP
Externally verified interim net profits are interim profits which have been verified by a firm's external auditors after deduction of tax, forseeable3dividends and other appropriations.3
GENPRU 2.2.103GRP
A firm may include interim profits before a formal decision has been taken only if these profits have been verified, in accordance with the relevant guidance issued by the Financial Reporting Council20, by persons responsible for the auditing of the accounts.
(1) 8In respect of GENPRU 2.2.115AR (4), the FCA18 may require the firm to convert the instrument into core tier one capital based on its financial and solvency situation. The FCA18 will take into account, among other things, the factors identified at GENPRU 2.2.69FG (2), adjusted to take into account the effects of a conversion rather than payment of a coupon.(2) Even if a firm meets its capital resources requirement, the FCA18 may consider the amount or composition of the
8An incentive to redeem is a feature of a capital instrument that would lead a reasonable market participant to have an expectation that the firm will redeem the instrument. The effect of GENPRU 2.2.115FR (2) is that the classification of an instrument that provides an incentive to redeem is always assessed at the date of its issue, and it cannot be reclassified.
8The trigger points required by GENPRU 2.2.117AR (3) must:(1) be clearly defined within the instrument and legally certain;(2) be disclosed and transparent to the market; and(3) be prudent and timely, and include trigger points which occur:(a) before a breach of the firm'scapital resources requirement and both:(i) when the firm's losses lead to a significant reduction of the firm's retained earnings or other reserves which causes a significant deterioration of the firm's financial
(1) 8The effects of the mechanisms described in GENPRU 2.2.117A R will be more meaningful if they happen immediately after losses cause a significant deterioration of the financial as well as the solvency situation and even before the reserves are exhausted.(2) If a firm does not operate the loss absorption mechanism in a prudent and timely way, then the FCA18 may consider using its powers under 55J of the Act to, on its own initiative, vary the firm'sPart 4A permission to require
GENPRU 2.2.124RRP
(1) GENPRU 2.2.123 R - GENPRU 2.2.137 R apply to capital of a firm if:(a) either or both of the conditions in (2) are satisfied; and(b) any of the SPVs referred to in (2) is a subsidiary undertaking of the firm.(2) The conditions referred to in (1) are:(a) that capital is issued to an SPV; or(b) the subscription for the capital issued by the firm is funded directly or indirectly by an SPV.(3) A BIPRU firm may not include capital coming within this rule in its capital resources
8GENPRU 2.2.127R (4) does not apply if the firm has conducted a properly reasoned analysis confirming that any potential risks, including legal and operational risks, associated with cross-border issues, which undermine the quality of the capital for the issuer, that arise from an SPV not being incorporated under or governed by the laws and jurisdiction of England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland, are adequately mitigated.
4GENPRU 2.2.129R (2) and GENPRU 2.2.131 R allow a firm to replace the capital issued by the SPV with capital instrument which are core tier one capital.888
GENPRU 2.2.132RRP
The capital which the firm seeks to include in its capital resources under GENPRU 2.2.124R (3)(a) must satisfy the following conditions:(1) it meets the conditions for inclusion in tier one capital (subject to GENPRU 2.2.130 R);(2) its first call date (if any) must not arise before that on the instrument issued by the SPV; and(3) its terms relating to repayment must be the same as those of the instrument issued by the SPV.
GENPRU 2.2.133RRP
(1) This rule deals with any transaction:(a) under which an SPV directly or indirectly funds the subscription for capital issued by the firm as described in GENPRU 2.2.124 R; or(b) that is directly or indirectly funded by a transaction in (1)(a).(2) Each undertaking that is a party to a transaction to which this rule applies (other than the firm) must be a subsidiary undertaking of the firm.(3) Each SPV that is a party to a transaction to which this rule applies must comply with
GENPRU 2.2.134GRP
The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.133 R is to deal with a capital-raising under which the capital raised by a special purpose vehicle is passed through a number of undertakings before it is invested in the firm. If the capital resources of the firm fall below, or are likely to fall below, its capital resources requirement the firm should replace the capital issued by that first special purpose vehicle with a tier one instrument directly issued by the firm which complies with GENPRU 2.2.129R
GENPRU 2.2.135RRP
A firm which satisfies the conditions for the inclusion of capital set out in GENPRU 2.2.124 R, must, in addition, if that transaction is in any respect unusual, notify the FCA18 at least one Month in advance of the date on which the firm intends to include that capital in its capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.136GRP
The FCA18 is likely to consider as unusual a transaction which involves the raising by the firm of tier one capital through a subsidiary undertaking of that firm that is not an SPV. The FCA18 would expect a firm to request individual guidance in such circumstances.
GENPRU 2.2.138RRP
(1) This rule applies to a potential tier one instrument if:(a) it is redeemable by the firm (ignoring GENPRU 2.2.77 R (Meaning of redemption));(b) it provides that if the issuer does not exercise that right or does not do so in specified circumstances the issuer must or may have to redeem it in whole or in part through the issue of shares eligible for inclusion in the firm'stier one capital resources or the instrument converts or may convert into such shares; and(c) GENPRU 2.2.77
GENPRU 2.2.139RRP
In GENPRU 2.2.138 R to GENPRU 2.2.142 R:(1) the original capital item means the capital item that is being redeemed; and(2) the conversion instrument means the tier one capital to be issued on its redemption.
GENPRU 2.2.140RRP
In GENPRU 2.2.138 R to GENPRU 2.2.142 R, the conversion ratio means the ratio of:(1) the number of units of the conversion instrument that the firm must issue to satisfy its redemption obligation (so far as it is to be satisfied by the issue of conversion instruments) in respect of one unit of the original capital item; to(2) one unit of the original capital item.
GENPRU 2.2.147RRP
(1) A firm may not include in its tier one capital resources a tier one instrument that is or may be subject to a step-up that does not meet the definition of moderate in the press release of the Basle Committee on Banking Supervision of 27th October 1998 called "Instruments eligible for inclusion in Tier 1 capital".(2) For the purpose of (1) the words in that press release "than, at national supervisory discretion, either" are replaced by "than the higher of the following two
GENPRU 2.2.148GRP
The effect of GENPRU 2.2.147 R is that for inclusion in tier one capital resources, step-ups in instruments should be moderate. A moderate step-up for these purposes is one which results in an increase over the initial rate that is no greater than the higher of the following two amounts:(1) 100 basis points, less the swap spread between the initial index basis and the stepped-up index basis; or(2) 50% of the initial credit spread, less the swap spread between the initial index
GENPRU 2.2.159RRP
A capital instrument must not form part of the tier two capital resources of a firm unless it meets the following conditions:(1) the claims of the creditors must rank behind those of all unsubordinated creditors;(2) the only events of default must be non-payment of any amount falling due under the terms of the capital instrument or the winding-up of the firm and any such event of default must not prejudice the subordination in (1);(3) to the fullest extent permitted under the
GENPRU 2.2.161RRP
A capital instrument may be included in a firm'stier two capital resources even though the remedies available to the subordinated creditor go beyond those referred to in GENPRU 2.2.159R (3), if the following conditions are satisfied:(1) those remedies are not available for failure to pay any amount of principal, interest or expenses or in respect of any other payment obligation; and(2) those remedies do not in substance amount to remedies to recover payment of the amounts in
GENPRU 2.2.162GRP
If damages are a remedy that cannot be excluded as referred to in GENPRU 2.2.159R (3) those damages should be subordinated in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.159R (1). Damages permitted by GENPRU 2.2.161 R should also be subordinated in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.159R (1).
GENPRU 2.2.164GRP
The FCA18 is more concerned that the subordination provisions listed in GENPRU 2.2.159 R should be effective than that they should follow a particular form. The FCA18 does not, therefore, prescribe that the loan agreement or capital instrument should be drawn up in a standard form.
GENPRU 2.2.166GRP
GENPRU 2.2.159R (3) allows a capital instrument to form part of the tier two capital resources even though the laws of the relevant jurisdiction do not allow remedies to be limited in the way described there. For example it is not possible to limit certain remedies in the case of an issue in the United States that is SEC-registered and subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act.
GENPRU 2.2.172RRP
A tier two instrument may be redeemable at the option of the firm, but any term of the instrument providing for the firm to have the right to exercise such an option must not provide for that right to be exercisable earlier than the fifth anniversary of the date of issue of the instrument.
GENPRU 2.2.175GRP
The rules and guidance in GENPRU 2.2.146 R to GENPRU 2.2.154 G on step-ups cover tier two capital as well as tier one capital.
GENPRU 2.2.176GRP
Examples of capital instruments which may be eligible to count in upper tier two capital resources include the following:(1) perpetual cumulative preference shares;(2) perpetual subordinated debt; and(3) other instruments that have the same economic characteristics as (1) or (2).
GENPRU 2.2.177RRP
A capital instrument must (in addition to meeting the requirements of the rules about eligibility for inclusion in tier two capital) meet the following conditions before it can be included in a firm'supper tier two capital resources:(1) it must have no fixed maturity date;(2) the terms of the instrument must provide for the firm to have the option to defer any coupon on the debt, except that the firm need not have that right in the case of a coupon payable in the form of an item
GENPRU 2.2.178RRP
If a firm gives notice of the redemption or repayment of an upper tier two instrument, the firm must no longer include it in its upper tier two capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.179GRP
(1) The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.177R (2) is to ensure that a firm which issues an item of capital with a coupon retains flexibility over the payments of such coupon and can preserve cash in times of financial stress. However, a firm may include, as part of the capital instrument terms, a right to make payments of a coupon mandatory if an item of capital becomes ineligible to form part of its capital resources (for example, through a change in the relevant rules) and the firm has
GENPRU 2.2.180RRP
A capital instrument may only be included in upper tier two capital resources if a firm's obligations under the instrument either:(1) do not constitute a liability (actual, contingent or prospective) under section 123(2) of the Insolvency Act 1986; or(2) do constitute such a liability but the terms of the instrument are such that:(a) any such liability is not relevant for the purposes of deciding whether:(i) the firm is, or is likely to become, unable to pay its debts; or(ii)
GENPRU 2.2.181RRP
A firm may not include an upper tier two instrument in its upper tier two capital resources unless it has obtained a properly reasoned independent legal opinion from an appropriately qualified individual confirming that the criteria in GENPRU 2.2.177R (3) and GENPRU 2.2.180 R (Loss absorption) are met. This rule does not apply to a perpetual cumulative preference share.
GENPRU 2.2.187RRP
A BIPRU firm which adopts the standardised approach to credit risk may include general/collective provisions in its tier two capital resources only if:(1) they are freely available to the firm;(2) their existence is disclosed in internal accounting records; and(3) their amount is determined by the management of the firm, verified by independent auditors and notified to the FCA18.
GENPRU 2.2.188RRP
The value of general/collective provisions which a firm may include in its tier two capital resources as referred to in GENPRU 2.2.187 R may not exceed 1.25% of the sum of the following:(1) the sum of the market risk capital requirement and the operational risk capital requirement (if applicable), multiplied by a factor of 12.5; and(2) the sum of risk weighted assets under the standardised approach for credit risk.
GENPRU 2.2.194RRP
A firm may include a capital instrument in its lower tier two capital resources if (in addition to meeting the requirements of the rules about eligibility for inclusion in tier two capital) either the holder has no right to repayment or it satisfies either of the following conditions:(1) it has an original maturity of at least five years; or(2) it is redeemable on notice from the holder, but the period of notice of repayment required to be given by the holder is five years or
GENPRU 2.2.195GRP
A firm may include perpetual capital instruments that do not meet the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.177 R (Eligibility conditions for upper tier two capital) in lower tier two capital resources if they meet the general conditions described in GENPRU 2.2.159 R (General conditions for eligibility as tier two capital instruments).
GENPRU 2.2.196RRP
(1) For the purposes of calculating the amount of a lower tier two instrument which may be included in a firm'scapital resources:(a) in the case of an instrument with a fixed maturity date, in the final five years to maturity; and(b) in the case of an instrument with or without a fixed maturity date but where five years' or more notice of redemption or repayment has been given, in the final five years to the date of redemption or repayment;the principal amount must be amortised
GENPRU 2.2.197GRP
If a firm wishes to include in lower tier two capital resources an instrument with or without a fixed maturity date but where less than five years' notice of redemption or repayment has been given, it should seek individual guidance from the FCA18.
GENPRU 2.2.198RRP
GENPRU 2.2.198 R to GENPRU 2.2.201 R apply to a tier one instrument, tier two instrument or tier three instrument of a firm that is treated as a liability under the accounting framework to which it is subject as referred to in GENPRU 1.3.4 R (General requirements: accounting principles to be applied) (a "debt instrument").
GENPRU 2.2.199RRP
A firm must recognise for the purpose of this section any effect that changes in exchange rates or interest rates have on a debt instrument (as defined in GENPRU 2.2.198 R) under the accounting framework to which the firm is subject as referred to in GENPRU 1.3.4 R (General requirements: accounting principles to be applied).
GENPRU 2.2.200RRP
A firm must recognise, in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.201 R, the effect of a foreign currency hedge on a debt instrument (as defined in GENPRU 2.2.198 R) denominated in a foreign currency or of an interest rate hedge on a fixed rate coupon debt instrument if:(1) the accounting framework to which the firm is subject as referred to in GENPRU 1.3.4 R (General requirements: accounting principles to be applied) provides for a fair value hedge accounting relationship between a liability
GENPRU 2.2.206RRP
The relevant capital resources of a firm mean for the purposes of this rule the sum of the amount of capital resources calculated at stages L (Total tier one capital plus tier two capital) and Q (Total tier three capital) of the calculation in the capital resources table as adjusted in accordance with the following:(1) the firm must not take into account the items referred to in any of the following:(a) GENPRU 2.2.190 R to GENPRU 2.2.193 R (surplus provisions); or(b) GENPRU 2.2.236
GENPRU 2.2.210GRP
For the purpose of the definition of a material holding, share capital includes preference shares. Share premium should be taken into account when determining the amount of share capital.
GENPRU 2.2.216GRP
(1) This paragraph gives guidance on how the calculation under GENPRU 2.2.214R (1) should be carried out where an insurance undertaking is accounted for using the embedded value method.(2) On acquisition, any "goodwill" element (that is, the difference between the acquisition value according to the embedded value method and the actual investment) should be deducted from tier one capital resources.(3) The embedded value should be deducted from the total of tier one capital resources
GENPRU 2.2.224RRP
For the purpose of the rules in this section about connected lending of a capital nature and in relation to a bank, a connected party means another person ("P") who fulfils at least one of the following conditions and is not solo-consolidated with the bank under BIPRU 2.1 (Solo consolidation):(1) P is closely related to the bank; or(2) P is an associate of the bank; or(3) the same persons significantly influence the governing body of P and the bank.
GENPRU 2.2.225RRP
For the purpose of GENPRU 2.2.224 R, in relation to a person ("P") to which a bank has an exposure when P is acting on his own behalf and also an exposure to P when P acts in his capacity as a trustee, custodian or general partner of an investment trust, unit trust, venture capital or other investment fund, pension fund or similar fund (a "fund") the bank may choose to treat this latter exposure as an exposure to the fund, unless such treatment would be misleading.
GENPRU 2.2.229RRP
A loan is also connected lending of a capital nature if:(1) it funds directly or indirectly a loan to a connected party of the bank falling into GENPRU 2.2.228 R1 or an investment in the capital of a connected party of the bank; and(2) it falls into GENPRU 2.2.228 R.
GENPRU 2.2.234GRP
A loan may initially fall outside the definition of connected lending of a capital nature but later fall into it. For example, if the initial lending to a connected party is subsequently downstreamed to another connected party the relationship between the bank and the ultimate borrower may be such that, looking at the arrangements as a whole, the undertaking to which the bank lends is able to regard the loan to it as being capable of absorbing losses.
GENPRU 2.2.235GRP
Lending to a connected party will not normally be connected lending of a capital nature where that party:(1) is acting as a vehicle to pass funding to an unconnected party; and(2) has no other creditors whose claims could be senior to those of the lender.
GENPRU 2.2.237RRP
A BIPRU firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach or the standardised approach to credit risk must deduct from its capital resources the following:1313(1) the exposure amount of securitisation positions which receive a risk weight of 1250% under BIPRU 9 (Securitisation), unless the firm includes the securitisation positions in its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts (see BIPRU 9.10 (Reduction in risk-weighted exposure amounts)); and13(2)
GENPRU 2.2.239RRP
(1) The treatment in the capital resources table of the deductions in GENPRU 2.2.238 R only has effect for the purpose of the capital resources gearing rules.(2) In other cases (3) and (4) apply.(3) A BIPRU firm making the deductions described in GENPRU 2.2.238 R must deduct 50% of the total amount of those deductions at stage E (Deductions from tier one capital) and 50% at stage J (Deductions from tier two capital) of the calculation in the capital resources table after the application
GENPRU 2.2.241RRP
GENPRU 2.2.241 R to GENPRU 2.2.245 R only apply to a BIPRU firm.
GENPRU 2.2.242RRP
A BIPRU firm may include subordinated debt in its upper tier three capital resources only if:(1) it has an original maturity of at least two years or is subject to at least two years' notice of repayment; and(2) payment of interest or principal is permitted only if, after that payment, the firm'scapital resources would be not less than its capital resources requirement.
GENPRU 2.2.243RRP
A BIPRU firm which includes subordinated debt in its tier three capital resources must notify the FCA18 one month in advance of all payments of either interest or principal made when the firm'scapital resources are less than 120% of its capital resources requirement.
GENPRU 2.2.244RRP
The rules in the table in GENPRU 2.2.245 R apply to short term subordinated debt that a BIPRU firm includes in its tier three capital resources in the same way that they apply to a firm'stier two capital resources with the adjustments in that table.
GENPRU 2.2.245RRP
Table: Application of tier two capital rules to tier three debtThis table belongs to GENPRU 2.2.244 RTier two capital ruleAdjustmentGENPRU 2.2.159 R (General conditions for eligibility as tier two capital)The references in GENPRU 2.2.159R (5) (Capital must not become repayable prior to stated maturity date except in specified circumstances) to repayment at the option of the holder are replaced by a reference to GENPRU 2.2.242R (1) (Upper tier three capital should have maturity
GENPRU 2.2.246RRP
GENPRU 2.2.246 R to GENPRU 2.2.249 R only apply to a BIPRU firm.
GENPRU 2.2.248RRP
Trading book profits and losses, other than those losses to which GENPRU 2.2.86R (2) (Valuation adjustment and reserves) refers, originating from valuation adjustments or reserves as referred to in GENPRU 1.3.29 R to 14GENPRU 1.3.35A G14 (Valuation adjustments or reserves) must be included in the calculation of net interim trading book profits and be added to or deducted from tier three capital resources.
GENPRU 2.2.249RRP
Trading book valuation adjustments or reserves as referred to in GENPRU 1.3.29 R to 14GENPRU 1.3.35A G14 which exceed those made under the accounting framework to which a firm is subject must be treated in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.248 R if not required to be treated under GENPRU 2.2.86R (2).
GENPRU 2.2.260RRP
Illiquid assets means illiquid assets including(1) tangible fixed assets (except land and buildings if they are used by a firm as security for loans, but this exclusion is only up to the value of the principal outstanding on the loans); or(2) any holdings in the capital resources of credit institutions or financial institutions, except to the extent that:(a) they have already been deducted as a material holding; or(b) they are shares which are included in a firm'strading book
GENPRU 2.2.264RRP
(1) The excess trading book position is the excess of:(a) a bank or building society's aggregate net long (including notional) trading bookpositions in shares, subordinated debt or any other interest in the capital of credit institutions or financial institutions;over;(b) 25% of that firm'scapital resources calculated at stage T (Total capital after deductions) of the capital resources table (calculated before deduction of the excess trading book position).(2) Only the excess
GENPRU 2.2.265RRP
The standard market risk PRR rules apply for establishing what is a net position and the amount and value of that position for the purposes of GENPRU 2.2.264 R, ignoring rules which would otherwise exclude such positions from BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR) or BIPRU 7.3 (Equity PRR and basic interest rate PRR for equity derivatives) on the basis that they are to be deducted from a bank or building society'scapital resources, or for any other reason.
GENPRU 2.2.276RRP
A BIPRU firm may not include a guarantee from a state or public authority in its capital resources.
BIPRU 2.2.3GRP
For the purpose of BIPRU 2.2, "capital" refers to a firm's financial resources, capital resources and internal capital, all as referred to in the overall Pillar 2 rule.
BIPRU 2.2.5GRP
The obligation to conduct an ICAAP, includes requirements on a firm to:(1) carry out regularly assessments of the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, capital resources and internal capital that it considers adequate to cover the nature and level of the risks to which it is or might be exposed (GENPRU 1.2.30 R to GENPRU 1.2.41 G (the overall Pillar 2 rule and related rules);(2) identify the major sources of risk to its ability to meet its liabilities as they
BIPRU 2.2.6GRP
Where a firm is a member of a group, it should base its ICAAP on the consolidated financial position of the group. The group assessment should include information on diversification benefits and transferability of resources between members of the group and an apportionment of the capital required by the group as a whole to the firm (GENPRU 1.2.44 G to GENPRU 1.2.56 G (Application of GENPRU 1.2 on a solo and consolidated basis: Processes and tests)). A firm may, instead of preparing
BIPRU 2.2.9GRP
The SREP is a process under which the appropriate regulator:(1) reviews the arrangements, strategies, processes and mechanisms implemented by a firm to comply with GENPRU, BIPRU and SYSC and with requirements imposed by or under the regulatory system and evaluates the risks to which the firm is or might be exposed;(2) determines whether the arrangements, strategies, processes and mechanisms implemented by the firm and the capital held by the firm ensures a sound management and
BIPRU 2.2.11GRP
As part of its SREP, the appropriate regulator will consider whether the amount and quality4 of capital which a firm should hold to meet its CRR in GENPRU 2.1 (Calculation of capital resources requirements) is sufficient for that firm to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule.4
BIPRU 2.2.13GRP
If a firm considers that the individual capital guidance4 given to it is inappropriate to its circumstances it should, consistent with Principle 11 (Relations4 with regulators), inform the appropriate regulator that it disagrees with that guidance. The appropriate regulator may reissue individual capital guidance if,4 after discussion with the firm,4 the appropriate regulator concludes that the amount or quality4 of capital that the firm should hold to meet the overall financial
BIPRU 2.2.13AGRP
4If a firm disagrees with the appropriate regulator's assessment as to the amount or quality of capital planning buffer that it should hold, it should, consistent with Principle 11 (Relations with regulators), notify the appropriate regulator of its disagreement. The appropriate regulator may reconsider its initial assessment if, after discussion with the firm, the appropriate regulator concludes that the amount or quality of capital that the firm should hold as capital planning
BIPRU 2.2.14GRP
The appropriate regulator will not give individual capital guidance to the effect that the amount of capital advised in that guidance is lower than the amount of capital which a firm should hold to meet its CRR.
BIPRU 2.2.15GRP
If, after discussion, the appropriate regulator and a firm still do not agree on an adequate level of capital, the appropriate regulator may consider using its powers under section 55J of the Act to vary on its own initiative a firm'sPart 4A permission so as to require it to hold capital in accordance with the appropriate regulator's view of the capital necessary to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule. In deciding whether it should use its powers under section 55J,
BIPRU 2.2.16GRP
If the appropriate regulator gives individual capital guidance to a firm, the appropriate regulator will state what amount and quality of capital the appropriate regulator considers the firm needs to hold in order to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule. It will generally do so by saying that the firm should hold capital resources of an amount which is 3at least equal to a specified percentage of that firm'scapital resources requirement plus one or more static add-ons
BIPRU 2.2.17GRP
(1) Individual capital guidance may refer to two types of capital resources.(2) The first type is referred to as general capital. It refers to total tier one capital resources and tier two capital resources after deductions.(3) The second type is referred to as total capital. It refers to total tier one capital resources, tier two capital resources and tier three capital resources after deductions.
BIPRU 2.2.19GRP
(1) Individual capital guidance may also be given with respect to group capital resources. This paragraph explains how such guidance should be interpreted unless the individual capital guidance specifies another interpretation.(2) If BIPRU 8.2.1 R (General consolidation rule for a UK consolidation group) applies to the firm the guidance relates to its UK consolidation group. If BIPRU 8.3.1 R (General consolidation rule for a non-EEA sub-group) applies to the firm the guidance
BIPRU 2.2.20GRP
A firm's continuing to hold capital in accordance with its individual capital guidance and its ability to carry on doing so is a fundamental part of the appropriate regulator's supervision of that firm. Therefore if a firm'scapital resources have fallen, or are expected to fall, below the level advised in individual capital guidance, then, consistent with Principle 11 (Relations with regulators), a firm should inform the appropriate regulator of this fact as soon as practicable,
BIPRU 2.2.22GRP
If a firm has not accepted individual capital guidance given by the appropriate regulator it should, nevertheless, inform the appropriate regulator as soon as practicable if its capital resources have fallen, or are expected to fall, below the level suggested by that individual capital guidance.
BIPRU 2.2.25GRP
(1) This paragraph applies to a small3firm whose activities are simple and primarily not credit-related.3(2) In carrying out its ICAAP it could:(a) identify and consider that firm's largest losses over the last 3 to 5 years and whether those losses are likely to recur;(b) prepare a short list of the most significant risks to which that firm is exposed;(c) consider how that firm would act, and the amount of capital that would be absorbed, in the event that each of the risks identified
BIPRU 2.2.26GRP
In relation to a firm whose activities are moderately complex, in carrying out its ICAAP, BIPRU 2.2.25 G (3) to (4) apply. In addition, it could:(1) having consulted the management in each major business line, prepare a comprehensive list of the major risks to which the business is exposed;(2) estimate, with the aid of historical data, where available, the range and distribution of possible losses which might arise from each of those risks and consider using shock stress tests
BIPRU 2.2.29GRP
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the appropriate regulator, between capital it holds in order to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital that it holds as a capital
BIPRU 2.2.41RRP
A firm with an IRB permission must ensure that there is no significant risk that it will not be able to meet its capital resource requirements for credit risk under GENPRU 2.1 (Calculation of capital resources requirements) at all times throughout an economic cycle, including the capital resources requirements for credit risk indicated by any stress test carried out under BIPRU 4.3.39 R to BIPRU 4.3.40 R (Stress tests used in assessment of capital adequacy for a firm with an IRB
BIPRU 2.2.43RRP
If BIPRU 2.2.41 R applies to a firm on a consolidated basis the following adjustments are made to BIPRU 2.2.41 R in accordance with the general principles of BIPRU 8 (Group risk - consolidation):(1) references to capital resources are to the consolidated capital resources of the firm'sUK consolidation group or, as the case may be, its non-EEA sub-group; and(2) references to the capital requirements in GENPRU 2.1 (Calculation of capital resources requirements) are to the consolidated
BIPRU 2.2.44GRP
If a firm's current available capital resources are less than the capital resources requirement indicated by the stress test that need not be a breach of BIPRU 2.2.41 R. The firm may wish to set out any countervailing effects and off-setting actions that can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the appropriate regulator as being likely to reduce the difference referred to in the first sentence. The appropriate regulator is only likely to consider a demonstration of such actions
BIPRU 2.2.45GRP
The countervailing factors and off-setting actions that a firm may rely on as referred to in BIPRU 2.2.44 G include, but are not limited to, projected balance sheet shrinkage, growth in capital resources resulting from retained profits between the date of the stress test and the projected start of the economic downturn, the possibility of raising new capital in a downturn, the ability to reduce dividend payments or other distributions, and the ability to allocate capital from
BIPRU 2.2.65GRP
The appropriate regulator expects an asset manager to consider the impact of economic factors on its ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due. An asset manager should therefore develop scenarios which relate to its strategic and business plan. An asset manager might therefore consider:(1) the effect of a market downturn affecting both transaction volumes and the market values of assets in its funds; in assessing the impact of such a scenario, an asset manager may consider
BIPRU 2.2.66GRP
(1) A securities firm may consider the impact of the situations listed in (a) to (c) on its capital levels when assessing its exposure to concentration risk:(a) the potential loss that could arise from large exposures to a single counterparty;(b) the potential loss that could arise from exposures to large transactions or to a product type; and(c) the potential loss resulting from a combination of events such as a sudden increase in volatility leaving a hitherto fully-margined
BIPRU 2.2.69GRP
(1) A securities firm should also consider the impact of external factors on the levels of capital it needs to hold. Scenarios covering such external factors should relate to its strategy and business plan. A securities firm might wish to consider the questions in (2) to (7).(2) Whether it plans to participate in a one-off transaction that might strain temporarily or permanently its capital.(3) Whether the unevenness of its revenue suggests that it should hold a capital buffer.
BIPRU 2.2.70GRP
A securities firm may also want to assess the impact of its internal credit limits on its levels of capital. For instance, a firm whose internal procedures authorise dealing without cash in the account or without pre-set dealing limits might consider more capital is required than if it operated stricter internal credit limits.
GENPRU 2.1.4GRP
The adequacy of a firm'scapital resources needs to be assessed in relation to all the activities of the firm and the risks to which they give rise.
GENPRU 2.1.6GRP
Principle 4 requires a firm to maintain adequate financial resources. GENPRU 2 sets out provisions that deal specifically with the adequacy of that part of a firm's financial resources that consists of capital resources. The adequacy of a firm'scapital resources needs to be assessed both by that firm and the appropriate regulator. Through its rules, the FCA14 sets minimum capital resources requirements for firms. It also reviews a firm's own assessment of its capital needs,
GENPRU 2.1.7GRP
This section sets capital resources requirements for a firm. GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) sets out how, for the purpose of meeting capital resources requirements, the amounts or values of capital, assets and liabilities are to be determined. More detailed rules relating to capital, assets and liabilities are set out in GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation)14 and, for a BIPRU firm, BIPRU.
GENPRU 2.1.8GRP
(1) [deleted]1212(2) This section also implements the third paragraph of article 95(2) of the EU CRR applying the 12provisions of the Capital Adequacy Directive and Banking Consolidation Directive concerning the level of capital resources which a BIPRU firm is required to hold. In particular it implements (in part) article 1275 of the Banking Consolidation Directive and Articles 5, 9, 10 and 18 of the Capital Adequacy Directive.(3) [deleted] 121291212121271212
GENPRU 2.1.10GRP
For the purposes of GENPRU 2.1.9 R, a firm should have systems in place to enable it to be certain whether it has adequate capital resources to comply with14 the main BIPRU firm Pillar 1 rules14 at all times. This does not necessarily mean that a firm needs to measure the precise amount of its capital resources and its CRR on a daily basis. A firm should, however, be able to demonstrate the adequacy of its capital resources at any particular time if asked to do so by the FCA1
GENPRU 2.1.40RRP
A BIPRU firm must maintain at all times capital resources equal to or in excess of the amount specified in the table in GENPRU 2.1.45 R (Calculation of the variable capital requirement for a BIPRU firm).
GENPRU 2.1.41RRP
A BIPRU firm must maintain at all times capital resources equal to or in excess of the base capital resources requirement (see the table in GENPRU 2.1.48 R).
GENPRU 2.1.42RRP
At the time that it first becomes a BIPRU firm12, a firm must hold initial capital of not less than the base capital resources requirement applicable to that firm.12
GENPRU 2.1.43GRP
The purpose of the base capital resources requirement for a BIPRU firm is to act as a minimum capital requirement or floor. It has been written as a separate requirement as there are restrictions in GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) on the types of capital that a BIPRU firm may use to meet the base capital resources requirement which do not apply to some other parts of the capital requirement calculation. In order to preserve the base capital resources requirement's role as a floor
GENPRU 2.1.44GRP
The base capital resources requirement and the variable capital requirement in GENPRU 2.1.40 R are together called the capital resources requirement (CRR) in the case of a BIPRU firm.
GENPRU 2.1.47RRP
The amount of a BIPRU firm'sbase capital resources requirement is set out in the table in GENPRU 2.1.48 R.
GENPRU 2.1.48RRP
This table belongs to GENPRU 2.1.47 RFirm categoryAmount: Currency equivalent of12BIPRU firm (but not a collective portfolio management investment firm)1212€50,00012
GENPRU 2.1.48AGRP
A collective portfolio management investment firm is required to maintain base own funds requirement of €125,000 (in line with IPRU-INV -link- 11.3.1R(1)).12
GENPRU 2.1.49GRP
The Capital Adequacy Directive sets out various categories of investment firms subject to differing levels of initial capital. For the purpose of the third paragraph of article 95(2) of the EU CRR, a BIPRU firm falls into the category in article 5(3) of the Capital Adequacy Directive. In summary, a BIPRU firm: 1212(1) does not provide the ancillary service of safekeeping and administration of financial instruments for the account of clients, including custodianship and related
GENPRU 2.1.52RRP
(1) A BIPRU firm must calculate its market risk capital requirement as the sum of:(a) the interest rate PRR (including the basic interest rate PRR for equity derivatives set out in BIPRU 7.3 (Equity PRR and basic interest rate PRR for equity derivatives));(b) the equity PRR;(c) the commodity PRR;(d) the foreign currency PRR;(e) the option PRR; and(f) the collective investment undertaking PRR.(2) Any amount calculated under BIPRU 7.1.9 R - BIPRU 7.1.13 R (Instruments for which
GENPRU 2.1.60RRP
(1) This rule applies to a bank that meets the following conditions:(a) on 31 December 2006 it had the benefit of IPRU(BANK) rule 3.3.12 (Reduced minimum capital requirement for a bank that is a credit institution which immediately before 1 January 1993 was authorised under the Banking Act 1987);(b) the relevant amount (as referred to in IPRU(BANK) rule 3.3.12) applicable to it was below €5 million as at 31 December 2006; and(c) on 1 January 2007 it did not comply with the base
GENPRU 2.1.61GRP
Where two or more banks merge, all of which individually have the benefit of GENPRU 2.1.60 R, the PRA may agree in certain circumstances that the base capital resources requirement for the bank resulting from the merger may be the sum of the aggregate capital resources of the merged banks, calculated at the time of the merger, provided this figure is less than €5 million.
BIPRU 8.6.1ARRP
3This section applies to a firm if another member of its group intends to issue a capital instrument on or after 1 March 2012 for inclusion in the firm'scapital resources or consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group.
BIPRU 8.6.1BRRP
3A firm must notify the appropriate regulator in writing of the intention of another member of its group which is not a firm to issue a capital instrument which the firm intends to include within its capital resources or the consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group as soon as it becomes aware of the intention of the groupundertaking to issue the capital instrument. When giving notice, a firm must:(1) provide details of the amount of capital
BIPRU 8.6.1DRRP
3If a groupundertaking proposes to establish a debt securities program for the issue of capital instruments which the firm intends to include within its capital resources or the consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group, it must:(1) notify the appropriate regulator of the establishment of the program; and(2) provide the information required by BIPRU 8.6.1BR (1) to (4); as soon as it becomes aware of the proposed establishment. The appropriate
BIPRU 8.6.1ERRP
3The capital instruments to which BIPRU 8.6.1B R does not apply are:(1) ordinary shares issued by a groupundertaking which:(a) are the most deeply subordinated capital instrument issued by that groupundertaking;(b) meet the criteria set out in GENPRU 2.2.83R (2) and GENPRU 2.2.83R (3) and GENPRU 2.2.83A R; and(c) are the same as ordinary shares previously issued by that groupundertaking;(2) debt instruments issued from a debt securities program established by a groupundertaking,
BIPRU 8.6.1FRRP
3A firm must notify the appropriate regulator in writing, no later than the date of issue, of the intention of a groupundertaking to issue a capital instrument listed in BIPRU 8.6.1E R which the firm intends to include within its capital resources or the consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group. When giving notice a firm must:(1) provide the information set out at BIPRU 8.6.1BR (1) to (3); and(2) confirm that the terms of the capital instrument
BIPRU 8.6.3GRP
As the various components of capital differ in the degree of protection that they offer, the capital resources gearing rules as applied on a consolidated basis place restrictions on the extent to which certain types of capital are eligible for inclusion in a UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group'sconsolidated capital resources. GENPRU 2.2.25 R (Limits on the use of different forms of capital: Use of higher tier capital in lower tiers) also applies.
BIPRU 8.6.4GRP
The prohibition in GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) on including innovative tier one capital in tier one capital for the purposes of meeting capital resources requirements applies under this section. However GENPRU 2.2.27 R (innovative tier one capital may be included in lower stages of capital when excluded from tier one capital) also applies. So, for example, a firm should not include consolidated indirectly issued capital in tier one capital but should generally include it as
BIPRU 8.6.5GRP
The rules in GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) on what tier two capital and tier three capital can be used for also apply under this section.
BIPRU 8.6.9RRP
A firm must give one Month's prior notice to the appropriate regulator before starting to use or stopping using the method in GENPRU 2 Annex 5 (Capital resources table for a BIPRU investment firm deducting illiquid assets).
BIPRU 8.6.11RRP
For the purposes of this chapter, GENPRU 2.2.123 R to GENPRU 2.2.137 R (Indirectly issued tier one capital (BIPRU firm only)) do not apply. A firm may only include consolidated indirectly issued capital in consolidated capital resources (whether as a minority interest or otherwise) in accordance with this section.
BIPRU 8.6.12RRP
Consolidated indirectly issued capital means any capital instrument issued by a member of the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group where:(1) some or all of the following conditions are satisfied:(a) that capital is issued to an SPV; or(b) that capital is issued by an SPV; or(c) the subscription for the capital issued by the member of the group in question is funded directly or indirectly by an SPV; and(2) any of the SPVs referred to in (1) is a member of the UK consolidation
BIPRU 8.6.13RRP
A firm may only include consolidated indirectly issued capital in the consolidated capital resources of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group if:(1) it is issued by an SPV that is a member of the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group to persons who are not members of the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group; and(2) the conditions in BIPRU 8.6.16 R to BIPRU 8.6.18 R are satisfied.
BIPRU 8.6.14RRP
Consolidated indirectly issued capital that is eligible for inclusion in the consolidated capital resources of a UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group may only be included as a minority interest created by the capital instrument issued by the SPV referred to in BIPRU 8.6.13 R. If it is eligible, it is innovative tier one capital.
BIPRU 8.6.16RRP
The SPV referred to in BIPRU 8.6.13 R must satisfy the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.127 R (Conditions that an SPV has to satisfy if indirectly issued capital is to be included in capital resources on a solo basis) as modified by the following:(1) references in GENPRU 2.2.127R (1) to being controlled by the firm are to being controlled by a member of the firm'sUK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group as the case may be; and(2) references to the firm'sgroup are to the firm'sUK consolidation
BIPRU 8.6.17RRP
The capital issued by the SPV referred to in BIPRU 8.6.13 R must satisfy the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.129 R (Conditions that capital issued by an SPV has to satisfy if indirectly issued capital is to be included in capital resources on a solo basis) as modified by the following:(1) references to the firm'sgroup are to the firm'sUK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group as the case may be;(2) the substitution obligation in GENPRU 2.2.129R (2) need not be the firm's but may apply
BIPRU 8.6.18RRP
The SPV referred to in BIPRU 8.6.13 R must invest the funds raised from the issue of capital by the SPV by subscribing for capital resources issued by an undertaking that is a member of the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group. Those capital resources must satisfy the following conditions:(1) those capital resources must at least comply with the requirements for lower tier two capital; and(2) the first call date or fixed maturity date (if any) of those capital resources
BIPRU 8.6.20RRP
A firm must comply with the requirements set out in GENPRU 2.2.135R (Notifying the appropriate regulator of unusual transactions in relation to indirectly issued capital) and GENPRU 2.2.137 R (Contents of marketing documents in relation to indirectly issued capital) in relation to consolidated indirectly issued capital included in consolidated capital resources.
GENPRU 1.2.26RRP
A firm must at all times maintain overall financial resources, including capital resources and liquidity resources, which are adequate, both as to amount and quality, to ensure that there is no significant risk that its liabilities cannot be met as they fall due.
GENPRU 1.2.29GRP
Risks may be addressed through holding capital to absorb losses that unexpectedly materialise. The ability to pay liabilities as they fall due also requires liquidity. Therefore, in assessing the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, both capital and liquidity needs should be considered. A firm should also consider the quality of its financial resources such as the loss-absorbency of different types of capital and the time required to liquidate different types of asset.15
GENPRU 1.2.30RRP
A firm must have in place sound, effective and complete processes, strategies and systems:(1) to assess and maintain on an ongoing basis the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, capital resources and internal capital that it considers adequate to cover:(a) the nature and level of the risks to which it is or might be exposed;(b) the risk in the overall financial adequacy rule; and(c) the risk that the firm might not be able to meet its CRR in the future; and(2)
GENPRU 1.2.34GRP
In the overall Pillar 2 rule , internal capital refers to the financial resources of a firm which it treats as being held against the risks listed in the overall Pillar 2 rule. The obligation in that rule to assess the distribution of such capital refers, in relation to a firm making an assessment on a solo basis, for example, to the need to take account of circumstances where part of a firm's financial resources are held by a branch of that firm which are subject to restrictions
GENPRU 1.2.35RRP
The processes, strategies and systems required by the overall Pillar 2 rule must be comprehensive and proportionate to the nature, scale and complexity of the firm's activities.
GENPRU 1.2.36RRP
As part of its obligations under GENPRU 1.2.30R (1) (Main requirement relating to risk processes, strategies and systems), a firm must identify separately the amount of tier one capital, tier two capital, tier three capital, other capital eligible to form part of its capital resources and each category of capital (if any) that is not eligible to form part of its capital resources which it considers adequate for the purposes described in GENPRU 1.2.30R (1).
GENPRU 1.2.37RRP
The processes and systems required by the overall Pillar 2 rule must:(1) include an assessment of how the firm6intends to deal with each of the major sources of risk identified in accordance with GENPRU 1.2.30R (2); 66(2) take into account the impact of diversification effects and how such effects are factored into the firm's systems for measuring and managing risks; and66(3) 6include an assessment of the firm-wide impact of the risks identified in accordance with GENPRU 1.2.30R
GENPRU 1.2.42DGRP
6In carrying out the stress tests and scenario analyses required by GENPRU 1.2.42R (1), a firm should also consider any impact of the adverse circumstances on its capital resources. In particular, a firm should consider the capital resources gearing rules where its tier one capital is eroded by the event.
GENPRU 1.2.49RRP
(1) In accordance with the general principles in GENPRU 1.2.48 R and BIPRU 8 (Group risk – consolidation), for the purpose of the ICAAP rules as they apply on a consolidated basis:(a) the firm must ensure that the relevant group as defined in (2) have the processes, strategies and systems required by the overall Pillar 2 rule;(b) the risks to which the overall Pillar 2 rule and the general stress and scenario testing rule refer are those risks as they apply to each member of the
GENPRU 1.2.51RRP
(1) This rule relates to the assessment of the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, capital resources and internal capital (referred to in this rule as "resources") under the overall Pillar 2 rule as applied on a consolidated basis and to the assessment of diversification effects as referred to in GENPRU 1.2.37R (2) as applied on a consolidated basis.(2) A firm must be able to explain how it has aggregated the risks referred to in the overall Pillar 2 rule and
GENPRU 1.2.52RRP
(1) A firm must allocate the total amount of financial resources, capital resources and internal capital identified as necessary under the overall Pillar 2 rule (as applied on a consolidated basis) between different parts of the relevant group (as defined in GENPRU 1.2.49 R). GENPRU 1.2.36 R (Identifying different tiers of capital) does not apply to this allocation.(2) The firm must carry out the allocation in (1) in a way that adequately reflects the nature, level and distribution
GENPRU 1.2.53RRP
A firm must also allocate the total amount of financial resources, capital resources and internal capital (referred to in this rule as "resources") identified as necessary under the overall Pillar 2 rule as applied on a consolidated basis between each firm which is a member of the relevant group (as defined in GENPRU 1.2.49 R) on the following basis:(1) the amount allocated to each firm must be decided on the basis of the principles in GENPRU 1.2.52R (2); and(2) if the process
GENPRU 1.2.57RRP
The overall financial adequacy rule applies to a firm on a solo basis whether or not it also applies to the firm on a consolidated basis.
GENPRU 1.2.58RRP
The overall financial adequacy rule applies to a firm on a consolidated basis if the ICAAP rules apply to it on a consolidated basis.
GENPRU 1.2.62GRP
Where a firm assesses the adequacy of its CRR in its particular circumstances in accordance with BIPRU 2.2 (Internal capital adequacy standards)15 as a basis for deciding what financial resources are adequate, it should include this in the documentation produced in accordance with GENPRU 1.2.60 R.
GENPRU 1.2.68GRP
Subject to GENPRU 1.2.76 G, the purpose of stress tests and scenario analyses under the general stress and scenario testing rule is to test the adequacy of overall financial resources. Scenarios need only be identified, and their impact assessed, in so far as this facilitates that purpose. In particular, the nature, depth and detail of the analysis depend, in part, upon the firm's capital strength and the robustness of its risk prevention and risk mitigation measures.
GENPRU 1.2.72GRP
In determining whether it would have adequate financial resources in the event of each identified realistic adverse scenario, a firm should:(1) only include financial resources that could reasonably be relied upon as being available in the circumstances of the identified scenario; and(2) take account of any legal or other restriction on the use of financial resources.
GENPRU 1.2.73AGRP
(1) 6In identifying an appropriate range of adverse circumstances and events in accordance with GENPRU 1.2.42R (2):(a) a firm will need to consider the cycles it is most exposed to and whether these are general economic cycles or specific to particular markets, sectors or industries;(b) for the purposes of GENPRU 1.2.42R (2)(a), the amplitude and duration of the relevant cycle should include a severe downturn scenario based on forward looking hypothetical events, calibrated against
GENPRU 1.2.80GRP
The pension scheme itself (i.e. the scheme's assets and liabilities) is not the focus of the risk assessment but rather 6the firm's obligations towards the pension scheme . A firm should include in its estimate of financial resources both its expected obligations to the pension scheme and any increase in obligations that may arise in a stress scenario.6666
GENPRU 1.2.81GRP
If a firm has a current funding obligation in excess of normal contributions or there is a risk that such a funding obligation will arise then, when calculating available capital resources, it should reverse out any accounting deficit and replace this in its capital adequacy assessment with its best estimate, calculated in discussion with the scheme's actuaries or trustees, of the cash that will need to be paid into the scheme in addition to normal contributions over the foreseeable
(1) A firm which is not an IMD insurance intermediary must have:(a) initial capital of EUR 50,000; or (b) professional indemnity insurance at least equal to the requirements of 13.1.11R1and 13.1.15R1 to 13.1.27R1; or (c) a combination of initial capital and professional indemnity insurance in a form resulting in a level of coverage equivalent to (a) or (b). [Note: Article 67(3) of MiFID and article 31(1) of the CRD (see also rule 13.1.11R1)](2) A2firm applying2 (b) or (c)
(1) A firm that is also an IMD insurance intermediary must have professional indemnity insurance at least equal to the limits set out in 13.1.10R1 and in addition must2 have:(a) initial capital of EUR 25,000; or (b) professional indemnity insurance at least equal to the requirements1 of 13.1.12R1and 13.1.15R1 to 13.1.27R1; or 2(c) a combination of initial capital and professional indemnity insurance in a form resulting in a level of coverage equivalent to (a) or (b). [Note:
A trade-off between initial capital and professional indemnity insurance is appropriate such that EUR 1 of initial capital is the equivalent of professional indemnity insurance cover of EUR 20 for a single claim against the firm and EUR 30 in aggregate.
A firm may include preference share capital in initial capital only where any coupon on it is not cumulative, and the firm is under no obligation to pay a coupon in any circumstances.
When calculating initial capital, a firm may include its audited retained earnings only after making the following adjustments: (1) a firm must not recognise the fair value reserves related to gains or losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments measured at amortised cost;(2) in respect of a defined benefit occupational pension scheme, a firm must derecognise any defined benefit asset; (3) a firm must not include any unrealised gains from investment
When calculating initial capital, a firm may include its partners' capital only after making the following adjustments: (1) a firm must not recognise the fair value reserves related to gains or losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments measured at amortised cost;(2) in respect of a defined benefit occupational pension scheme, a firm must derecognise any defined benefit asset; (3) where applicable, a firm must deduct any asset in respect of deferred
A firm must, at all times, maintain a combination of professional indemnity insurance and own funds, at least equal to the requirements in this chapter for professional indemnity insurance and initial capital.
A firm'sinitial capital: minus the sum of the items set out against Bplus the sum of the items set out against Cminus material holdings in credit and financial institutions and material insurance holdingsequals own funds.
Perpetual cumulative preference share capital may not be included in the calculation of own funds unless it meets the following requirements: (1) it may not be reimbursed on the holder's initiative or without the prior agreement of the FCA2; (2) the instrument must provide for the firm to have the option of deferring the dividend payment on the share capital; (3) the shareholder's claims on the firm must be wholly subordinated
(1) In calculating own funds:(i) the total amount of revaluation reserves, perpetual cumulative preference share capital, long-term subordinated loans and fixed term preference share capital must not exceed 100% of initial capital minus the sum of the items set out against B; and (ii) the total amount of fixed term preference share capital and long-term subordinated loans must not exceed 50% of initial capital minus the sum of the items set out against B.
REC 2.3.1UKRP
Schedule to the Recognition Requirements Regulations, Paragraph 12(1) The [UK RIE] must have financial resources sufficient for the proper performance of its [ relevant functions] as a [UK RIE].(2) In considering whether this requirement is satisfied, the [FCA]5must (without prejudice to the generality of regulation 6(1)) take into account all the circumstances, including the [UK RIE's] connection with any person , and any activity carried on by the [UK RIE], whether or not it
REC 2.3.3GRP
In determining whether a UK recognised body has financial resources sufficient for the proper performance of its relevant functions, the FCA5 may have regard to:5(1) the operational and other risks to which the UK recognised body is exposed;(2) if the UK recognised body guarantees the performance of transactions in specified investments, the counterparty and market risks to which it is exposed in that capacity; 5(3) the amount and composition of the UK recognised body's capital;(4)
REC 2.3.5GRP
In assessing whether a UK recognised body has sufficient financial resources in relation to counterparty and market risks, the FCA5 may have regard to:5(1) the amount and liquidity of its financial assets and the likely availability of liquid financial resources to the UK recognised body during periods of major market turbulence or other periods of major stress for the UK financial system;3 and(2) the nature and scale of the UK recognised body's exposures to counterparty and market
REC 2.3.6GRP
In assessing whether a UK recognised body has sufficient financial resources in relation to operational and other risks, the FCA5 may have regard to the extent to which, after allowing for the financial resources necessary to cover counterparty and market risks, the UK recognised body's financial resources are sufficient and sufficiently liquid:5(1) to enable the UK recognised body to continue carrying on properly the regulated activities that it expects to carry on; and(2) to
REC 2.3.7GRP
In considering whether a UK recognised body has sufficient financial resources in relation to operational and other risks, the FCA5 will normally have regard to two components: eligible financial resources and net capital.454
REC 2.3.9GRP
4(1) 4The FCA5 considers that a UK RIE which at any time holds:5(a) eligible financial resources not less than the greater of:(i) the amount calculated under the standard approach; and (ii) the amount calculated under the risk-based approach; and (b) net capital not less than the amount of eligible financial resources determined under (1)(a);will, at that time, have sufficient financial resources to meet the recognition requirement in respect of operational and other risks unless
REC 2.3.10GRP
4The FCA5 would expect to provide a UK recognised body with individual guidance on the amount of eligible financial resources which it considers would be sufficient for the UK recognised body to hold in respect of operational and other risks in order to satisfy the recognition requirements. In formulating its individual guidance, the FCA5 will ordinarily apply the approach described in REC 2.3.9 G for UK RIEs.5555
REC 2.3.11GRP
4For the purposes of REC 2.3, "eligible financial resources" should consist of liquid financial assets held on the balance sheet of a UK recognised body, including cash and liquid financial instruments where the financial instruments have minimal market and credit risk and are capable of being liquidated with minimal adverse price effect.
REC 2.3.13GRP
(1) 4Under the standard approach, the amount of eligible financial resources is equal to six months of operating costs.(2) Under the standard approach, the FCA5 assumes liquid financial assets are needed to cover the costs that would be incurred during an orderly wind-down of the UK recognised body'sexempt activities, while continuing to satisfy all the recognition requirements and complying with any other obligations under the Act (including the obligations to pay periodic fees
REC 2.3.14GRP
(1) 4The risk-based approach is intended to ensure that sufficient financial resources are maintained at all times such that a UK RIE would not be prevented from implementing an orderly wind-down as a result of the financial impacts of stress events affecting its business or the markets in which it operates.(2) Under the risk-based approach the amount of eligible financial resources is calculated by adding together:(a) the amount estimated by the UK RIE to absorb the potential
REC 2.3.16GRP
4The FCA5 would normally expect to use the financial risk assessment prepared by the UK RIE in the course of preparing individual guidance on the amount of financial resources that it considers is sufficient for a UK RIE to hold in order to satisfy the recognition requirements. The financial risk assessment would provide the basis for calculating the amount of eligible financial resources that should be held by the UK RIE under the risk-based approach.5
REC 2.3.20GRP
4The FCA5 would expect to consider the financial risk assessment, any proposal with respect to an operational risk buffer and, if applicable, the consolidated balance sheet, in formulating its guidance on the amount of eligible financial resources it considers to be sufficient for the UK RIE to hold in order to meet the recognition requirements. In formulating its guidance, the FCA5 would, where relevant, consider whether or not the financial risk assessment makes adequate provision
REC 2.3.21GRP
4The FCA5 would normally consider a UK recognised body to be failing the recognition requirements if it held financial resources less than the amount calculated under REC 2.3.9G (1)(a)(i) (in respect of UK RIEs). The FCA5 therefore expects a UK recognised body to hold an operational risk buffer of a sufficient amount in excess of this minimum, to ensure that it is at all times able to comply with its regulatory obligations.555
REC 2.3.22GRP
(1) [deleted]55(2) The FCA5 would normally expect a UK RIE to hold, in addition to the minimum amount determined under REC 2.3.9G (1)(a)(i), an operational risk buffer consistent with a risk-based approach.5(a) Where the amount of eligible financial resources calculated by a UK RIE under REC 2.3.17G (5) (the risk-based approach) is greater than the amount of eligible financial resources calculated under REC 2.3.13 G (the standard approach), and the difference is of an amount sufficient
IFPRU 2.2.1RRP
A firm must, at all times, maintain overall financial resources and internal capital, including own funds and liquidity resources which are adequate both as to amount and quality to ensure there is no significant risk that its liabilities cannot be met as they fall due.
IFPRU 2.2.3GRP
The effective management of prudential risk relies on the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, systems and controls. These need to be assessed in relation to all the activities of the firm and the risks to which they give rise, and so this chapter applies to a firm for the whole of its business. For a collective portfolio management investment firm, this means that this section also applies to its activities in relation to the management of AIFs and/or UCITS.
IFPRU 2.2.6GRP
Risks may be addressed through holding capital to absorb losses that unexpectedly materialise. The ability to pay liabilities as they fall due also requires liquidity. Therefore, in assessing the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, both capital and liquidity needs should be considered. A firm should also consider the quality of its financial resources, such as the loss-absorbency of different types of capital and the time required to liquidate different types of asset.
IFPRU 2.2.10GRP
In the overall Pillar 2 rule, internal capital refers to the financial resources of a firm which it treats as being held against the risks listed in the overall Pillar 2 rule. The obligation in that rule to assess the distribution of such capital refers, in relation to a firm making an assessment on an individual1basis, for example, to the need to take account of circumstances where part of a firm's financial resources are held by a branch of that firm which are subject to restrictions
IFPRU 2.2.11RRP
As part of its obligations under the overall Pillar 2 rule, a firm must identify separately the amount of common equity tier 1 capital, additional tier 1 capital and tier 2 capital and each category of capital (if any) that is not eligible to form part of its own funds which it considers adequate for the purposes described in the overall Pillar 2 rule.
IFPRU 2.2.15GRP
Certain risks, such as systems and controls weaknesses, may not be adequately addressed by, for example, holding additional capital and a more appropriate response would be to rectify the weakness. In such circumstances, the amount of financial resources required to address these risks might be zero. However, a firm should consider whether holding additional capital might be an appropriate response until the identified weaknesses are rectified. A firm, should, in line with IFPRU
IFPRU 2.2.28RRP
(1) A firm's financial resources and internal capital must be adequate for material market risk that are not subject to an own funds requirement under Part Three of the EUCRR (Capital Requirements).(2) A firm which has, in calculating own funds requirements for position risk in accordance with Part Three, Title IV, Chapter 2 of the EU CRR (Own funds requirements for position risk), netted off its positions in one or more of the equities constituting a stock-index against one
IFPRU 2.2.40GRP
In carrying out the stress tests and scenario analyses under IFPRU 2.2.37 R (1), a firm should also consider any impact of the adverse circumstances on its own funds. In particular, a firm should consider the capital ratios in article 92 of the EU CRR (Own funds requirements) where its common equity tier 1 capital and additional tier 1 capital is eroded by the event.
IFPRU 2.2.42GRP
For the purpose of IFPRU 2.2.37 R (5), a firm should consider whether the nature of the major sources of risks identified by it, in line with IFPRU 2.2.7 R (2) (Main requirement relating to risk strategies, processes and systems), and their possible impact on its financial resources suggest that such tests and analyses should be carried out more frequently. For instance, a sudden change in the economic outlook may prompt a firm to revise the parameters of some of its stress tests
IFPRU 2.2.51RRP
For the purpose of the ICAAPrules as they apply on a consolidated basis or on a sub-consolidated basis: (1) the firm must ensure that the FCA consolidation group has the processes, strategies and systems required by the overall Pillar 2 rule;(2) the risks to which the overall Pillar 2 rule and the general stress and scenario testing rule refer are those risks as they apply to each member of the FCA consolidation group;(3) the reference in the overall Pillar 2 rule to amounts
IFPRU 2.2.52RRP
(1) This rule relates to the assessment of the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, own funds and internal capital (referred to in this rule as "resources") under the overall Pillar 2 rule as applied on a consolidated basis and to the assessment of diversification effects as referred to in IFPRU 2.2.14 R (3)(b) as applied on a consolidated basis.(2) A firm must be able to explain how it has aggregated the risks referred to in the overall Pillar 2 rule and the
IFPRU 2.2.53RRP
(1) A firm must allocate the total amount of financial resources, own funds and internal capital identified as necessary under the overall Pillar 2 rule (as applied on a consolidated basis) between different parts of the FCA consolidation group. IFPRU 2.2.11 R (Identifying different tiers of capital) does not apply to this allocation(2) The firm must carry out the allocation in (1) in a way that adequately reflects the nature, level and distribution of the risks to which the group
IFPRU 2.2.57GRP
Whereas a single legal entity can generally use its capital to absorb losses wherever they arise, there are often practical and legal restrictions on the ability of a group to do so. For instance:(1) capital which is held by overseas regulated firms may not be capable of being remitted to a firm in the UK which has suffered a loss;(2) a firm which is, or likely to become, insolvent may be obliged to look to the interests of its creditors first before transferring capital to other
IFPRU 2.2.68GRP
One of the main purposes of stress tests and scenario analyses under the general stress and scenario testing rule is to test the adequacy of overall financial resources. Scenarios need only be identified, and their impact assessed, in so far as this facilitates that purpose. In particular, the nature, depth and detail of the analysis depend, in part, upon the firm's capital strength and the robustness of its risk prevention and risk mitigation measures.
IFPRU 2.2.72GRP
In determining whether it would have adequate financial resources in the event of each identified realistic adverse scenario, a firm should:(1) only include financial resources that could reasonably be relied upon as being available in the circumstances of the identified scenario; and(2) take account of any legal or other restriction on the use of financial resources.
IFPRU 2.2.73GRP
(1) In identifying an appropriate range of adverse circumstances and events in accordance with IFPRU 2.2.37 R (2):(a) a firm will need to consider the cycles it is most exposed to and whether these are general economic cycles or specific to particular markets, sectors or industries;(b) for the purposes of IFPRU 2.2.37 R (2)(a), the amplitude and duration of the relevant cycle should include a severe downturn scenario based on forward-looking hypothetical events, calibrated against
IFPRU 2.2.79GRP
The focus of the risk assessment is on the firm's funding2 obligations towards the pension scheme, not of the pension scheme’s risks themselves (i.e. the scheme's segregated2 assets and liabilities). A firm should include in its estimate of financial resources both its expected obligations to the pension scheme and any increase in obligations that may arise in a stress scenario.
IFPRU 2.3.2GRP
For the purpose of IFPRU 2.3, "capital" refers to a firm's financial resources, own funds and internal capital, all as referred to in the overall Pillar 2 rule.
IFPRU 2.3.4GRP
The obligation to conduct an ICAAP includes requirements on a firm to: (1) carry out regularly assessments of the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, own funds and internal capital that it considers adequate to cover the nature and level of the risks to which it is or might be exposed (IFPRU 2.2.1 R to IFPRU 2.2.6 G (the overall Pillar 2 rule and related rules)); (2) identify the major sources of risk to its ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due
IFPRU 2.3.10GRP
As part of its SREP, the FCA will consider whether the amount and quality of capital which a firm should hold to meet its own funds requirements in the EUCRR is sufficient for that firm to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule.
IFPRU 2.3.17GRP
The FCA will not give individual capital guidance to the effect that the amount of capital advised in that guidance is lower than the amount of capital which a firm should hold to meet its own funds requirements.
IFPRU 2.3.20GRP
Individual capital guidance may refer to two types of own funds:(1) General capital. It refers to total common equity tier 1 capital and additional tier 1 capital after applying deductions and prudential filters under the EUCRR.(2) Total capital. It refers to total common equity tier 1 capital, additional tier 1 capital and tier 2 capital after applying deductions and prudential filters under the EUCRR.
IFPRU 2.3.32GRP
IFPRU 2.3.23 G to IFPRU 2.3.31 G also apply to individual capital guidance and to capital planning buffer on a consolidated basis.
IFPRU 2.3.34GRP
(1) This paragraph applies to a firm that is not a significant IFPRU firm (see IFPRU 1.2.3 R) whose activities are simple and primarily not credit-related.(2) In carrying out its ICAAP it could: (a) identify and consider that firm's largest losses over the last three to five years and whether those losses are likely to recur;(b) prepare a short list of the most significant risks to which that firm is exposed;(c) consider how that firm would act, and the amount of capital that
IFPRU 2.3.35GRP
For a firm that is a significant IFPRU firm (see IFPRU 1.2.3 R1) and whose activities are moderately complex, in carrying out its ICAAP, IFPRU 2.3.34 G (2) to IFPRU 2.3.34 G (4) apply. In addition, it could: 1(1) having consulted the management in each major business line, prepare a comprehensive list of the major risks to which the business is exposed;(2) estimate, with the aid of historical data, where available, the range and distribution of possible losses which might arise
IFPRU 2.3.38GRP
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the FCA, between capital it holds to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital it holds as a capital planning buffer and capital held
IFPRU 2.3.49GRP
To assess its expected capital requirements over the economic and business cycles, a firm may wish to project forward its financial position taking account of its business strategy and expected growth, according to a range of assumptions regarding the economic or business environment which it faces. For example, an ICAAP should include an analysis of the impact that the actions of a firm's competitors might have on its performance, in order to see what changes in its environment
IFPRU 2.3.52RRP
If IFPRU 2.3.50 Rapplies to a firm on a consolidated basis, the following adjustments are made to IFPRU 2.3.50 R in accordance with the general principles of Part One, Title II, Chapter 2 of the EU CRR (Prudential consolidation): (1) references to own funds are to the consolidated own funds of the firm's FCA consolidation group or, as the case may be, its non-EEA sub-group; and(2) references to the capital requirements in Part Three of the EU CRR (Capital requirements) are to
IFPRU 2.3.54GRP
The countervailing factors and off-setting actions that a firm may rely on as referred to in IFPRU 2.3.53 G include, but are not limited to, projected balance sheet shrinkage, growth in own funds resulting from retained profits between the date of the stress test and the projected start of the economic downturn, the possibility of raising new capital in a downturn, the ability to reduce dividend payments or other distributions, and the ability to allocate capital from other risks
IFPRU 2.3.62GRP
The FCA expects an asset manager to consider the impact of economic factors on its ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due. Therefore, an asset manager should develop scenarios which relate to its strategic and business plan. An asset manager might consider: (1) the effect of a market downturn that affects both transaction volumes and the market values of assets in its funds - in assessing the impact of such a scenario, an asset manager may consider the extent to which
IFPRU 2.3.63GRP
(1) A securities firm may consider the impact of the following situations on its capital levels when assessing its exposure to concentration risk: (a) the potential loss that could arise from large exposures to a single counterparty; (b) the potential loss that could arise from exposures to large transactions or to a product type; and(c) the potential loss resulting from a combination of events such as a sudden increase in volatility leaving a hitherto fully-margined client unable
IFPRU 2.3.66GRP
A securities firm should also consider the impact of external factors on the levels of capital it needs to hold. Scenarios covering such external factors should relate to its strategy and business plan. A securities firm might wish to consider the following factors:(1) whether it plans to participate in a one-off transaction that might strain temporarily or permanently its capital;(2) whether the unevenness of its revenue suggests that it should hold a capital buffer. Such an
IFPRU 2.3.67GRP
A securities firm may also want to assess the impact of its internal credit limits on its levels of capital. For instance, a firm whose internal procedures authorise dealing without cash in the account, or without pre-set dealing limits, might consider more capital is required than if it operated stricter internal credit limits.
INSPRU 7.1.5GRP
The adequacy of a firm'scapital resources needs to be assessed both by the firm and the appropriate regulator. In GENPRU 2.1, the appropriate regulator sets minimum capital resources requirements for firms.
INSPRU 7.1.6GRP
The appropriate regulator also assesses whether the minimum capital resources requirements are appropriate by reviewing:(1) a firm's own assessment of its capital needs; and(2) the processes and systems by which that assessment is made.
INSPRU 7.1.8GRP
There are two main aims in this section:(1) to enable firms to understand the issues which the appropriate regulator would expect to see assessed and the systems and processes which the appropriate regulator would expect to see in operation for ICAs by firms to be regarded as thorough, objective and prudent; and(2) to enable firms to understand the appropriate regulator's approach to assessing whether the minimum capital resources requirements of GENPRU 2.1 are appropriate and
INSPRU 7.1.11GRP
In accordance with GENPRU 1.2.60 R, these assessments must be documented so that they can be easily reviewed by the appropriate regulator as part of the appropriate regulator's assessment of the adequacy of the firm'scapital resources.
INSPRU 7.1.13RRP
Based upon this information and other information available to it, the appropriate regulator will consider whether the capital resources requirement applicable to the firm is appropriate. Where relevant, the firm'sECR will be a key input to the appropriate regulator's assessment of the adequacy of the firm'scapital resources. For firms carrying on general insurance business, the ECR is calculated in accordance with INSPRU 1.1.72C R.5
INSPRU 7.1.14GRP
Firms that are required to calculate an ECR may wish to note that the ECR as calculated is based upon the assumptions that a firm's business is well diversified, well managed with assets matching its liabilities and good controls, and stable with no large, unusual, or high risk transactions. Firms may find it helpful to assess the extent to which their actual business differs from these assumptions and therefore what adjustments it might be reasonable to make to the CRR or ECR
INSPRU 7.1.15RRP
Where a firm is carrying out an assessment in accordance with GENPRU 1.22 of the adequacy of its overall financial resources to cover the risk in the overall financial adequacy rule, that is, the risk of its being unable to meet its liabilities as they fall due2, the assessment of the adequacy of the firm's capital resources must:(1) reflect the firm's assets, liabilities, intra-group arrangements and future plans; (2) be consistent with the firm's management practice, systems
INSPRU 7.1.18GRP
Where including new business would increase the capital resources by more than any increase in the capital required, or reduce the capital required by more than any reduction in available capital, new business should be excluded. To the extent that including new business increases the required capital, a firm should consider whether it is appropriate to include the additional amount within the ICA.
INSPRU 7.1.91GRP
In assessing the adequacy of a firm'scapital resources, the appropriate regulator draws on more than just a review of the submitted ICA. Use is made of wider supervisory knowledge of a firm and of wider market developments and practices. When forming a view of any individual capital guidance to be given to a firm, the review of the firm'sICA along with the regulator’s risk assessment and any other issues arising from day-to-day supervision will be considered.
INSPRU 7.1.93GRP
A firm should not expect the appropriate regulator to accept as adequate any particular model that the firm develops or that the results from the model are automatically reflected in any individual capital guidance given to the firm for the purpose of determining adequate capital resources. However, the appropriate regulator will take into account the results of any sound and prudent model when giving individual capital guidance or considering applications for a waiver under sections
INSPRU 7.1.94GRP
Where the appropriate regulator considers that a firm will not comply with GENPRU 1.2.26 R (adequate financial resources, including capital resources) by holding the capital resources required by GENPRU 2.1, the appropriate regulator may give the firmindividual capital guidance advising it of the amount and quality of capital resources which the appropriate regulator considers it needs to hold in order to meet that rule.
CONC 10.2.2RRP
A firm must ensure that, at all times, its prudential resources are not less than its prudential resources requirement.
CONC 10.2.4RRP
The prudential resources requirement for a firm carrying on a regulated activity or activities in addition to those covered by this chapter, is the higher of:(1) the requirement which is applied by this chapter; and(2) the prudential resources requirement which is applied by another rule or requirement to the firm.
CONC 10.2.7GRP
The definition of relevant debts under management refers to a debt due under a credit agreement or a consumer hire agreement in relation to which the firm is carrying on debt adjusting or an activity connected to that activity. The reference to "debt due" covers not only amounts that are payable at the time the prudential resources requirement is calculated but also amounts the borrower or hirer1 is presently obliged to pay under the credit agreement or the consumer hire agreement1
CONC 10.2.8RRP
The prudential resources requirement for a firm to which this chapter applies is the higher of:(1) £5,000; or(2) the sum calculated in accordance with CONC 10.2.5 R (2); for the period until (subject to CONC 10.2.13 R) its next accounting reference date.
CONC 10.2.9RRP
To determine a firm's prudential resources requirement for the period beginning on the date on which it obtains Part 4A permission and ending on the day before its next accounting reference date, the firm must carry out the calculation in CONC 10.2.5 R (2) on the basis of the total value of relevant debts under management the firm projects will be outstanding on the day before its next accounting reference date.
CONC 10.2.11GRP
If a firm has 1000 relevant debts under management and each of those debts is £10,000, the total value of the firm'srelevant debts under management is £10,000,000. If the firm does not carry on any other regulated activity to which another higher prudential resources requirement applies, its prudential resources requirement is £20,000. This is calculated as follows:(1) 0.25% x £5,000,000 = £12,500; and(2) 0.15% x £5,000,000 = £7,500.
CONC 10.2.12GRP
If during the following year 20% (£200) of each relevant debt under management is paid off by the borrower or hirer leaving an outstanding balance of £800 on each relevant debt under management,and during that year the firm does not carry on debt adjusting in relation to any further debts due under credit agreements or consumer hire agreements, the total value of the firm'srelevant debt under management is £8,000,000. If the firm does not carry on any other regulated activity
CONC 10.2.13RRP
If a firm experiences a greater than 15% increase in the total value of its relevant debts under management compared to the value used in its last prudential resources requirement calculation, it must recalculate its prudential resources requirement using the new total value of its relevant debts under management.
CONC 10.2.14RRP
A firm must notify the FCA of any change in its prudential resources requirement within 14 days of that change.
IFPRU 3.2.5GRP
An indirect or synthetic holding includes a holding of a firm of shares, any other interest in the capital and subordinated debt, whether in the trading book or non-trading book, in:(1) an institution ; or(2) a financial institution; that satisfies the following conditions:(3) the holding is the subject of an agreement or arrangement between the firm and either the issuer of the instrument in question or a member of the group to which the issuer belongs;(4) under the terms of
IFPRU 3.2.6RRP
In determining whether an item of capital qualifies as common equity tier 1 capital, additional tier 1 capital or tier 2 capital, a firm must take into account any connected transaction which, when taken together with the item of capital, would cause it not to display the characteristics of common equity tier 1 capital, additional tier 1 capital or tier 2 capital.
IFPRU 3.2.8RRP
A firm must demonstrate to the FCA that any additional tier 1 instrument or tier 2 instrument issued by it that is governed by the law of a third country is by its terms capable, as part of a resolution of the firm, of being written down or converted into a common equity tier 1 instrument of the firm to the same extent as an equivalent own funds instrument issued under the law of the UK.
IFPRU 3.2.10RRP
A firm must notify the FCA of the following:(1) its intention; or(2) the intention of another member of its group that is not a firm, but is included in the supervision on a consolidated basis of the firm;to issue a capital instrument that it believes will qualify under the EUCRR as own funds other than a common equity tier 1 capital at least one month before the intended date of issue.
IFPRU 3.2.11RRP
A firm does not have to give notice under IFPRU 3.2.10 R if the capital instrument is: (1) an ordinary share; or(2) a debt instrument issued under a debt securities programme under which the firm or group member has previously issued and the firm has notified the FCA, in accordance with IFPRU 3.2.10 R, prior to a previous issuance under the programme.
IFPRU 3.2.18GRP
A partner's account of a firm that is a partnership:(1) into which capital contributed by partners is paid; and(2) from which under the terms of the partnership agreement an amount representing capital may be withdrawn by a partner only if: (a) he ceases to be a partner and an equal amount is transferred to another such account by his former partners or any person replacing him as their partner; or(b) the partnership is wound up or otherwise dissolved; or(c) the firm has ceased
IFPRU 3.2.19GRP
A member's account of a firm that is a limited liability partnership:(1) into which capital contributed by the members is paid; and (2) from which, under the terms of the limited liability partnership agreement, an amount representing capital may be withdrawn by a partner only if:(a) he ceases to be a member and an equal amount is transferred to another such account by his former fellow members or any person replacing him as a member;(b) the limited liability partnership is wound
MAR 8.3.5RRP
A benchmark administrator must:(1) appoint a benchmark administration manager with responsibility for oversight of its compliance with this section; and(2) ensure that its benchmark administration manager has a level of authority and access to resources and information sufficient to enable him to carry out that responsibility.
MAR 8.3.13RRP
Notwithstanding any other financial resource requirements that may apply, a firm whose permitted activities include administering a specified benchmark must:(1) be able to meet its liabilities as they fall due; and(2) maintain, at all times, sufficient financial resources to be able to cover the operating costs of administering the specified benchmark for a period of at least six months.
MAR 8.3.13AGRP
1A benchmark administrator that administers more than one specified benchmark may comply with its financial resources requirements under MAR 8.3.13R (2) by holding sufficient financial resources to cover the combined operating costs for all specified benchmarks it administers.
MAR 8.3.14GRP
1(1) 1MAR 8.3.13 R sets out the minimum amount of financial resources a benchmark administrator must hold to carry out administering a specified benchmark.(2) 1The FCA expects benchmark administrators to:(a) normally hold sufficient financial resources to cover the operating costs of administering the specified benchmark for a period of nine months; and(b) notify the FCA where a benchmark administrator's financial resources fall below these levels (required by MAR 8.3.17 R and
MAR 8.3.15GRP
To meet the financial resources requirement in MAR 8.3.13R (2), the FCA expects a benchmark administrator to hold both sufficient liquid financial assets and net capital to be able to cover the operating costs of administering the specified benchmark.11(1) net capital 1 can include common stock, retained earnings, disclosed reserves, other instruments generally classified as common equity tier one capital or additional tier one capital and may include interim earnings that have
MAR 8.3.16GRP
The FCA may use its powers under section 55L of the Act to impose on a benchmark administrator a requirement to hold additional financial resources to MAR 8.3.13 R if the FCA considers it desirable to meet any of its statutory objectives.
MAR 8.3.17RRP
1A benchmark administrator must notify the FCA, as soon as practicable, where it identifies a reasonable possibility of not being able to hold sufficient financial resources to cover the operating costs of administering the specified benchmark for a period of nine months.
Although financial resources and appropriate systems and controls can generally mitigate operational risk, professional indemnity insurance has a role in mitigating the risks a firm faces in its day-to-day operations, including those arising from not meeting the legally required standard of care when advising on investments. The purpose of the rules in this section is also to ensure that a firm has in place the type, and level, of professional indemnity insurance necessary to
A firm must at all times: (1) have and maintain capital resources at least equal to its relevant capital resources requirement1; and (2) be able to meet its liabilities as they fall due.
The policy must not: (1) exclude any type of business or activity that has been carried out by the firm in the past or will be carried out by the firm during the time for which the policy is in force; or(2) exclude liabilities which are identified or crystallised as a result of regulatory action against the firm (either individually or as a member of a class of authorised persons); unless the firm holds additional capital resources, in accordance with 13.1.23R.
The amount of additional capital resources that a firm must hold as a result of an exclusion under IPRU-INV 13.1.21R1 must1 be calculated by referring to the firm's relevant income in the following table: Relevant income £000s Minimum additional capital resources more than up to £000s (Notes 1 and 2) 0 100 5 100 200 12 200 300 18 300 400 21 400 500 23 500 600 25 600 700 27 700 800 28 800 900 30 900 1,000 31 1,000 1,500 37 1,500 2,000 42
The firm should hold additional capital resources in excess of those minimum amounts set out in the table in 13.1.23R where the required amounts of additional capital resources provide insufficient cover, taking into account the firm's individual circumstances.
The policy must not make provision for payment by the firm of an excess on any claim of more than £5,000, unless the firm holds additional capital resources, in accordance with 13.1.27R.
The amount of additional capital resources that a firm must hold where the policy's excess on any claim is more than £5,000 must be calculated by referring to the firm's relevant income and excess obtained in the following table: All amounts are shown in £000s (Notes 1 and 2) Relevant income is Excess obtained, up to and including more than up to 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 75 100 150 200+ 0 100 0 4 7 9 12 14 18 21 28 34 45 54 100 200 0 7 11 14 17
(1) 1For the purposes of the provisions relating to professional indemnity insurance, “additional capital resources” means readily realisable own funds or capital resources under IPRU-INV 13.15.3R, depending on the type of firm1.(2) 1The FCA1 expects items included in own funds or capital resources under IPRU-INV 13.15.3R, depending on the type of firm,1 to be regarded as “readily realisable” only if they can be realised, at any given time, within 90 days.
BIPRU 8.7.2GRP
Each of the capital charges in BIPRU 8.7.1 G, as applied on a consolidated basis, is called a consolidated requirement component. The name of each consolidated requirement component reflects the solo capital charge on which it is based. Solo capital charges are called risk capital requirements. Thus for example the consolidated requirement component for market risk is called the consolidated market risk requirement. The calculation of the consolidated market risk requirement is
BIPRU 8.7.5GRP
In general a firm should calculate each consolidated requirement component using the appropriate regulator'srules, even in the case of group members who are subject to the capital requirements of an overseas regulator. However this section sets out certain circumstances in which a firm may use the capital requirements of an overseas regulator.
BIPRU 8.7.8GRP
A firm has a choice about how it should apply a risk capital requirement to the group. It may do this by treating the whole of the group as a single entity and applying the risk capital requirement to the group (a line by line approach), calculating a separate risk capital requirement for each group member (an aggregation approach) or a mixture of the two.
BIPRU 8.7.11RRP
A firm must calculate a consolidated requirement component by applying the risk capital requirement applicable to that consolidated requirement component to the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group in accordance with BIPRU 8.7.13 R. Except where BIPRU 8.7.34 R to BIPRU 8.7.38 R allow the requirements of another regulator to be used, the risk capital requirement must be calculated in accordance with the appropriate regulator'srules. The risk capital requirement applicable
BIPRU 8.7.12RRP
Table: Capital charges relating to consolidated requirement componentsThis table belongs to BIPRU 8.7.11 RConsolidated requirement componentRules on which the consolidated requirement component are based (the applicable risk capital requirement)Consolidated credit risk requirementCredit risk capital requirementConsolidated fixed overheads requirementFixed overheads requirementConsolidated market risk requirementMarket risk capital requirement3
BIPRU 8.7.13RRP
(1) A firm must calculate a consolidated requirement component by using one of the methods in this rule.(2) Under the first method a firm must:(a) apply the risk capital requirement set out in BIPRU 8.7.12 R to each undertaking in the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group; and(b) add the risk capital requirements together.(3) Under the second method a firm must:(a) treat the whole UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group as a single undertaking; and(b) apply the risk
BIPRU 8.7.18GRP
The credit risk capital requirement (on which the consolidated credit risk requirement is based) is split into two3capital charges. One relates to credit risk in the non-trading book (the credit risk capital component). One relates to credit risk in the trading book (the counterparty risk capital component). 3131
BIPRU 8.7.29RRP
In accordance with BIPRU 8.2.1 R and BIPRU 8.3.1 R (The basic consolidation rules for a UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group), a firm may exclude that part of the risk capital requirement that arises as a result of:(1) (in respect of the consolidated credit risk requirement) intra-group balances; or(2) (in respect of the consolidated operational risk requirement and consolidated fixed overheads requirement) intra-group transactions;with other undertakings in the UK consolidation
IPRU-INV 9.2.4RRP
(1) An exempt CAD firm which is not an IMD insurance intermediary must have: (a) initial capital of EUR 50,000; or (b) professional indemnity insurance covering the whole territory of the EEA or some other comparable guarantee against liability arising from professional negligence, representing at least EUR 1,000,000 applying to each claim and in aggregate EUR 1,500,000 per year for all claims; or (c) a combination of initial capital and professional
IPRU-INV 9.2.5RRP
(1) An exempt CAD firm that is also an IMD insurance intermediary must comply with the professional indemnity insurance requirements at least equal to those set out in 9.2.4R(1)(b) (except that the minimum limits of indemnity are at least EUR 1,120,200 for a single claim and EUR 1,680,300 in aggregate) and in addition has to have: (a) initial capital of EUR 25,000; or (b) professional indemnity insurance covering the whole territory of the EEA or some
IPRU-INV 9.2.6GRP
A trade-off between initial capital and professional indemnity insurance is appropriate such that EUR 1 of initial capital is the equivalent of professional indemnity insurance cover of EUR 20 for a single claim against the firm and EUR 30 in aggregate.
IPRU-INV 9.2.7RRP
(a) If another authorised person which has net tangible assets of more than £10 million provides a comparable guarantee, an exempt CAD firm can treat it as an alternative to effecting or maintaining professional indemnity insurance pursuant to the rules relating to professional indemnity insurance above. (b) If the exempt CAD firm is a member of a group in which there is an authorised person with net tangible assets of more
IPRU-INV 9.2.8RRP
A local firm must: (a) have initial capital of EUR 50,000; and [Note: Article 67(2) of MiFID and article 30 of the CRD] (b) maintain own funds calculated in accordance with the rules relating to own funds in 9.5, at least to the requirement for initial capital.
BIPRU 9.1.4GRP
A firm should apply the securitisation framework set out in this chapter for determining regulatory capital requirements on exposures arising from traditional securitisations and from synthetic securitisations and from structures that contain features of both.
BIPRU 9.1.5GRP
Since transactions may be structured in many different ways, the capital treatment of a position should be determined on the basis of its economic substance rather than merely its legal form. A firm should look to the economic substance of a transaction to determine whether the securitisation framework is applicable for purposes of determining regulatory capital. A firm should consult the appropriate regulator when there is uncertainty about whether a given transaction should
BIPRU 9.1.7GRP
A firm that is a party to a securitisation should fully understand the risks it has assumed or retained. In particular it should do so in order that it can correctly determine in accordance with BIPRU 9 the capital effects of the securitisation.
BIPRU 9.1.8GRP
The appropriate regulator expects an originator to continue to monitor any risks that it may be subject to when it has excluded the securitised exposures from its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. The originator should consider capital planning implications where risks may return and the impact that securitisation has on the quality of the remaining exposures held by the originator.
BIPRU 9.1.9GRP
BIPRU 9 deals with:(1) requirements for investors,3originators and sponsors of securitisations of non-trading bookexposures;3(2) the calculation of risk weighted exposure amount for securitisation positions for the purposes of calculating either the credit risk capital component or the counterparty risk capital component; and3(3) the requirements that investors, originators and sponsors of securitisations in the trading book will have to meet (BIPRU 9.3.1AR, BIPRU 9.3.15R to BIPRU
IPRU-INV 4.4.1DRP
The Society must maintain appropriate and effective arrangements to require members’ agents1 to meet and continue to meet financial resource requirements at least equivalent to the requirements set out in Lloyd's Capital and Solvency Requirements 2001, as they are in force immediately before commencement.
IPRU-INV 4.4.3DRP
The report referred to in IPRU-INV 4.4.2D must reach the FCA1 within two months of the end of the relevant quarter and must state: (1) whether the Society has any information indicating or tending to indicate that, during the quarter to which the report relates, the members’ agents1 failed to meet the financial resource requirements referred to in IPRU-INV 4.4.1D; (2) whether, at the end of the quarter to which the report relates, the members’ agents1 failed to meet the financial
IPRU-INV 4.4.4DRP
In addition to the reports required under IPRU-INV 4.4.2D, the Society must give the FCA1 an annual report on each members’ agents1 compliance or non-compliance with financial resource requirements as at the end of that members’ agent's1 financial year.
IPRU-INV 4.4.5DRP
The report in IPRU-INV 4.4.4D must reach the FCA1 within seven months of that members’ agent's1 accounting reference date and must: (1) confirm that: (a) the Society has received from that members’ agent1 in respect of the financial year to which the report relates, all relevant attachments to the Annual Financial Return that the members’ agent1 is required to make to the Society under the requirements identified in IPRU-INV 4.4.1D; (b) that members’ agent1 met the applicable
(1) If more than one firm in the group is subject to the rules of this chapter, groupfinancial resources are defined according to the relevant rules applicable to the main firm in the group to which this chapter applies, with Tier 1 minority interests being allowed as Group Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 minority interests being allowed as Group Tier 2 capital. (2) In calculating the groupfinancial resources, deductions should be made for intangible assets, material unaudited losses
Financial resources will be defined based upon the main firm in the group to which this chapter applies as follows: (1) if a broad scope securities and futures firm (excluding a venture capital firm), Table 3-61R; (2) [Deleted](3) [Deleted](4) [deleted](5) [deleted]
A firm may apply for a waiver of rule 14.4.1 to permit an aggregation approach to determine groupfinancial resources. Any waiver application should guarantee future compliance with any relevant own funds limit.
Action which a firm takes either to restore its capital resources to the levels set by the intervention points in PRA2 Rulebook: Solvency II Firms: Undertakings in Difficulty or PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Run Off Operations2, or to prevent its capital resources falling below those points, should be consistent with Principle 6 of the FCA's Principles for Businesses. Principle 6 requires a firm to pay due regard to the interests of its customers and treat them fairly.
If a firm intends either (a) to remedy a fall in capital resources, or (b) to prevent such a fall, for example, by taking management action to reduce the risks to which a with-profits fund is exposed or by reducing non-contractual benefits for policyholders, it should explain to the FCA how such proposed actions are consistent with the firm's obligations under Principle 6 (Customers' interests).
Where a firm submits a plan for restoration under2 PRA Rulebook: Solvency II Firms: Undertakings in Difficulty or PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Run Off Operations2, the FCA would expect an explanation of how any actions it plans to take to restore its capital resources are consistent with the firm's obligations under Principle 6 (Customers' interests).